Studies & Reference
Al Bukhari, Imam Muhammud. “Afflictions and the End of the World” in Sahih al-Bukhari.
Al-Ghazlai. The Remembrance of Death and the Afterlife, Book XL of the Revival of the Religious Sciences. Ed and trans., T. J. Winter. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society, 1989. “The Inferno and Its Terrors and Torments, ” 219–31.
Al-Hajjaj al-Naysaburi, Muslim ibn. Characteristics of the Day of Judgment, Paradise and Hell in Sahih Muslim.
At-Tirmidhi, Abu `Isa Muhammad. “The Book on the Description of Hellfire” in Jami` at-Tirmidhi by Abu `Isa Muhammad at-Tirmidhi (824–92 CE / 209–79 AH).
Jeffery, Arthur, ed. A Reader on Islam: Passages from Standard Arabic Writings Illustrative of the Beliefs and Practices of Muslims. ’S-Gravenhage: Mouton & Co., 1962. Includes Abu’l-Laith-as-Samarqandi’s The Arousement of the Heedless, 23039.
The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night. Trans by Powys Mathers from the French translation of J. C. Mardrus. London: Routledge, 1964. “The Tale of Bulukiya on the Isle of the Seven Seas,” 2: 340-43.
Studies & Reference
Abrahamov, Binyamin. “The Creation and Duration of Paradise and Hell in Islamic Theology.” Der Islam 79 (2002): 87102.
Alwaye, A. M. Mohiaddin. “The Belief in the Day of Judgment and Its Effects on the Life of Man.”Majallat al-Azhar (June 1969), 1–6.
——. “Life after Death—in the Conception of Islam.”Majallat al-Azhar (October 1974 ), 1–6.
Asin Palacios, Miguel. Islam and the Divine Comedy. Harold Sunderland, trans. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1926.
———. La Escatalogía Musulmana en la Divina Comedia. 2 ed. Granada: Escuela de estudios arabes de Madrid y Granada, 1943.
Demichelis, Marco. Salvation and Hell in Classical Islamic Thought: Can Allah Save Us All? Oxford: Bloomsbury Academic, 2020.
Eklund, Ragnar. Life between Death and Resurrection According to Islam. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1941.
Evrin, M S, and Sofi Huri. Eschatology Im Islam. Istanbul, 1960.
Fahd, T. “Nar.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam. New ed. Edited by H. A. R. Gibb and C.E. Bosworth. Leiden: Brill, 1960, 7:957–60.
This article examines the 29 different connotations of the word nar (fire) in the Qur’an and ancient Arabic writings. Nar occurs 129 times in the Qur’an with 111 of those referring to hellfire.
Filiu, Jean-Pierre. Apocalypse in Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.
Gardet, L. “Djahannam.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam. New ed. Edited by H. A. R. Gibb and C.E. Bosworth. Leiden: Brill, 1960, 2:381–82. The Arabic equivalent of Gehenna, djahannam invokes the idea of depth (infernus). Often it is used in the Qur’an as a synonym for fire (nar). Some traditionalists regard Djahannam as a fantastic beast of hell; others regard it as the highest zone of the underworld, which is reserved for Muslim sinners who have not reprented. Accordingly, with the release of Muslims from Gehenna and their entry into paradise, Gehenna would cease to exist.
Hamza, Feras. “To Hell and Back: A Study of the Concepts of Hell and Intercession in Early Islam.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Oxford University, 2002.
Khalil, Mohammad H. Between Heaven and Hell: Islam, Salvation, and the Fate of Others. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. A collection of essays examining various Islamic interpretations of the mercy of God, the possibility of salvation outsied Islam, the nature of diversity and fate, intercession and prayer, and the nature of the afterlife. See especially Marcia Hermansen, “Acts of Salvation: Agency, Others and Prayer Beyond the Grave in Islam,” 273–87.
Kinberg, Leah. “Interaction between This World and the Afterworld in Early Islamic Tradition.” Oriens 29 (1986): 285-308.
Lange, Christian. Paradise and Hell in Islamic Traditions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
———, ed. Locating Hell in Islamic Traditions. Leiden: Brill, 2016.
Morris, James Winston. The Wisdom of the Throne: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.
O’Shaughnessy, Thomas. “The Seven Names for Hell in the Qur’an.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 24 (1961): 44469.
Raven, Wim. “A Kitâb al-‘Azama: On Cosmology, Paradise and Hell.” In Miscellanea Arabica et Islamica: Dissertationes academia Utrajectina Prolatea anno mcmxc, ed. by F. De Jong (Leuven, 1993), pp. 135–42.
Robson, James. “Is Moslem Hell Eternal?” The Muslim World, October 1938, 386–93. Robson examines the position held on this subject by Maulana Muhammad Ali, author of The Holy Qur-án, containing the Arabic Text with English Translation and Commentary (Lahore 1920). Muhammad Ali, in the Ahmadiyya tradition, supported the view that Hell was not everlasting, but Robson, examining anomalies in his translation and the opinions of more mainstream Muslim teachings, considers his views on this topic divergent from the Moslem community in general.
Rustomji, Nerina. The Garden and the Fire: Heaven and Hell in Islamic Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Saleh, Soubhi El-. La Vie Future selon le Coran. Études Musulmanes 13. Paris: Librarie Philosophique J. Vrin, 1986.
Smith, Jane Idleman and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad. Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981. An analysis, mostly within the Sunni tradition, of the importance of resurrection and judgment on Islamic throught, both from traditional and modern viewpoints. Considers the nature of Islamic hell and the possibility of punishment in the grave between death and resurrection.
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