Bibliography for Jewish and Christian Hells


Works by Visionary’s Name, Author’s Name or Title



Related Topics


Doctor Faustus, by Christopher Marlowe (1564–93),
English, 1588

The Greek Apocalypse of Mary, Greek, before 9th C.

  • James, Apocrypha, 111–26. Text and brief introduction.
  • Rutherford, A. Ante-Nicene Fathers. New York: Scribner’s, 1899, 9:169–74. English translation of text.
  • Collins, A.Y. Apocalypse : The Morphology of a Genre. J.J. Collins, ed. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press for the Society of Biblical Literature, 1979, 116.

The Apocalypse of Mary, Ethiopic, 17th C.


  • Chaîne, Marius, ed. Corpus Christianorum Orientalium: Scriptores Aethiopici, Series 1, Vol. 7. Rome, Paris, Leipzig, 1909: 61–68.

The Vision of Maximus, Spain, 656

  • Ciccarese, 280–87. Latin text based on Pousa (below) with facing Italian translation. Includes brief introduction (pp. 276–79) on the nature of this work with regard to the others in the collection. Provides some notes (298–301) to the text.
  • Henriet, Patrick, Jacques Elfassi, et al, eds.Valère du Bierzo: Écrits autobiographiques et Visions de l’au-delà. Series: Autuers Latins du Moyen Âge (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2021), 150–67. Presents an introduction to Valerius’s life and writings, with a chapter on Valerius’s otherworld visions (cxxxi–cl), plus a critical edition of the Latin text with a facing-page annotated French translation.
  • PL 87:431–33. Reprint of the diplomatic edition of the Latin text edited by Henrique Flórez et al., in Espana sagrada, 51 vols. (Madrid: Gabriel Ramirez, 1762), 16:379–82.
  • Pousa, Ramon Fernández, ed. San Valerio: Edicion critica con Xlll facsimiles. Madrid: Instituto Antonio de Nebrija, 1942, 110–14.Critical edition.
  • Aherne, Consuelo Maria, ed. Valerio of Bierzo: An Ascetic of the Late Visigothic Period. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University Press, 1949, 57–61. Includes a brief discussion of the three visions (Baldarius, Bonellus, and Maximus) with comparison to Valerio’s autobiographical writings and to each other. Each of the visions is apparently related to Valerio by the visionary himself. Claims that “the accounts of the three visions are among the most interesting of Valerio’ s writings.” Includes a general, select bibliography on Valerio.

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The Vision of Merlino, Irish

  • Macalister, RA. Stewart, ed. and trans. “The Vision of Merlino.” Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 4 (1902–3): 394–455. Provides a brief introduction which claims no knowledge of the origin of the work, mentions possible connection with Italian sources (with Virgil), and lists fourteen mss with brief descriptions. Presents a critical edition of the Irish text with a facing English translation.
  • Macalister, RA. Stewart, ed. and trans. Fis Merlino: The Vision of Merlino: An Irish Allegory. Dublin: M.H. Gill, 1905. This is a revision of the translation published 1902–3 (above). Presents the Irish text then the English translation, without introduction, followed by an Irish vocabulary.
  • Seymour, St. John D., “Irish Versions of the Vision of St Paul,” The Journal of Theological Studies 24.93 (October 1922): 54–59. Briefly discusses, at p. 57, points of connection between the Merlino and an Irish version of the Vision of St. Paul.

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Discourse on Saint Michael the Archangel, by Timothy,
Archbishop of Alexandria (378–84), Coptic, late 4th C.


The Vision of the Monk of Bernicia, English, c. 704–9

  • Ciccarese, 328–31. Latin text based on Colgrave (below) with facing Italian translation. Includes brief introduction on the nature of this work with regard to the others in the collection. Provides some notes (p. 336) to the text.
  • Colgrave, 502–5. Parallel Latin text and English translation with English notes. Select, bibliography includes editions, critical works, translations of the Historia and editions of sources used by Bede.
  • Giles, 3:218–23. Latin critical edition with facing English translation.
  • PL 95:254–55. Latin edition of Bede’s Historia.
  • Plummer, 1:313–15, 2:299–301. Latin critical edition in volume 1; commentary in volume 2. Introduction, in English, discusses Bede’s life and work and the mss. of the Historia.
  • Wallace–Hadrill, 87. A commentary on the text of the Historia, which includes an extensive bibliography.

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The Vision of the Monk of Eynsham (Visio Edmundi monachi Eynsham), English, 1196

  • AB 22(1903):225–319. Critical edition of Latin “Visio monachi de Eynsham” (pp. 236–319), ed. by Herbert Thurston. Introduction discusses the tradition of vision literature, the connection between this work and Hugh of Lincoln, and eight mss of the text.
  • Arber, Edward, ed. The Revelation to the Monk of Evesham. English Reprints 18. London: English Reprints, 1869; Westminster: A. Constable, 1895, 1901. This edition in English is based on the one printed by William de Machlinia, c.1482. The editor does not know of mss and assume the work was originally written in English.
  • Easting, Robert, ed. The Revelation of the Monk of Eynsham. Middle English Texts. Oxford: Early English Text Society, 2002.
  • Gardiner, 197–218. Includes English translation of vision with notes and bibliography.
  • Huber, Michael, ed. “Visio Monachi de Eynsham.” Romanische Forschungen 16 (1904): 641–733. Critical Latin edition based on Chartres Cod. Lat. 131 (84). Introduction mentions seven mss consulted to prepare this edition.
  • Paget, Valerian, trans. The Revelation to the Monk of Evesham. New York: McBride, 1909. English translation with a general introduction on the historical and literary importance of the vision.
  • Thomson, John. Revelation of the Monk of Evesham: A Remarkable Psychological Production of the Middle Ages Now for the First Time Sufficiently Rendered into Present Day English. Pleaknowe, Scotland: Thomson & Co., 1904.
  • Roger of Wendover, Coxe ed., 3:97–117. Diplomatic edition of the Latin text with annotations.
  • Roger of Wendover, Giles trans., 2: 148–‘54.English translation based on Coxe edition (above). Preface discusses Roger, the nature of his work, and his sources.
  • Salter, H.E., ed. The Cartulary of the Abbey of Eynsham.  2 vols. Oxford Historical Society Publications 49, 51. Oxford: Oxford Historical Society, 1908, 2:257–371. Critical edition of the Latin text of the Visio monachi de Eynsham based on Digby Ms. 34. Introduction includes discussion of mss and a discussion of evidence for associating this work with Oxford, examining carefully first the identification of the visionary with St. Edmund, and eventually rejecting this identification and linking the vision to an unidentified monk who was a native of Oxford.
  • Thomson, John. The Revelation of the Monk of Evesham: A Remarkable Psychological Production of the Middle Ages : Now for the First Time Sufficiently Rendered into Present-Day English. Glasgow: Thomson & Co, 1904.
  • Ward, 2(1893): 493–506. Descriptions of Latin mss: Cotton Cleopatra C. xi, Cotton Caligula A. viii, Harley 3776.
  • Carozzi, Claude. Le Voyage de l’âme dans l’au-delà d’après la littérature latine, Ve-XIIIe siècle Le Voyage de l’âme dans l’au-delà d’après la littérature latine, Ve-XIIIe siècle (Rome: École Française de Rome, 1994), 508–12–97, 563–67, 619–23.
  • Cosmo, Umberto. “Una nuova fonte dantesca?” Studi medievali 1 (1904–5): 77–93. Speculation on the Visio monachi de Eynsham as a possible source for Dante through Matthew Paris. He acknowledges that there is no evidence, but asserts that it is not impossible that Dante might have come across this work as he almost surely did come across the Vision of Furseus and the Vision of Drythelm.
  • Davies, Constance. “The Revelation to the Monk of Evesham.” Review of English Studies 11(1935): 182–83. Brief note maintaining the validity of the designation of “Evesham,” about ten miles southwest of Stratford–on–Avon in Worcestershire.
  • Dengler, Mark. “In speculo et enigmate: Zur Auswahl und Funktion biblischer Zitate in der Vision Edmundi monachi de Eynsham.” In Ehlen (below), 59–71.
  • Ehlen, Thomas, Johannes Mangei, and Elisabeth Stein. Visio Edmundi monachi de Eynsham: Interdisziplinare Studien zur mittelalterlichen Visionsliteratur. Tübingen: G. Narr, 1998.
  • ———. “Vision und Schrift — Interessen, Prozeß und Typik der Verschriftlichung hochmittelalterlicher Jenseitsreisen in lateinischer Sprache am Beispiel der Visio Edmundi monachi Eynsham.” In Ehlen (above), 251–300.
  • Foster, 2:457, 649. Description and bibliography on the Vision of the Monk of Eynsham.
  • Kreutzer, Thomas. “Jenseits und Gesellschaft: Zur Soziologie der Vision Edmundi monachi de Eynsham.” In Ehlen (above), 39–58.
  • Losert, Kerstin. “Adam von Eynsham—Erstredaktor der Visio Edmundi monachi de Eynsham?” In Ehlen (above), 3–30.
  • Mangei, Johannes. “Die bedeutung der Kartäuser für die Überlieferung der Visio Edmundi monachi de Eynsham.” In Ehlen (above), 135–61.
  • Schmidt, Paul Gerhard. “Visio diligenti narratione luculenter exarata: Zu Sprache und Stil der Visio Edmundi monachi de Eynsham.” In Ehlen (above), 31–38.
  • Stein, Elisabeth. “…de Gallica edicione rithmice composita in Latinam transtuli…: Eine Rückübersetzen der Visio Edmundi monachi de Eynsham.” In Ehlen (above), 113–33.
  • Thurston, Herbert. “The Vision of the Monk of Eynsham.” The Month 91 (1898): 49–63. Attempts to establish legitimacy for this vision based on the premise that the monk in question “was intimately associated with...St. Hugh of Avalon, bishop of Lincoln, and that the revelation was both approved by him, and even published at his express desire”; and that the vision was actually written down by Adam, Hugh’s biographer. This theory is based on the prologue of Coggeshall to the Vision of Thurkill. Lists five mss of VME (554–55 notes).
  • Weiners, Thomas H.T. “Konig, Bishof und Abt im Fegefeuer: Historische Personen, Fürsten- und Prälatenkritik in der Visio Edmundi monachi de Eynsham.” In Ehlen (above), 73–87.
  • Wilson, Christopher Thomas John. “The Dissemination of Visions of the Otherworld in England and Northern France c.1150–c.1321.” Ph.D. diss. University of Exeter, 2012, 23–111.

The Vision of the Monk of Melrose, English, 1160

  • PL 212:1059–60. Edition of Latin text from Helinand’s Chronicle without annotation.

The Vision of the Monk of Wenlock, by St. Boniface
(c. 732–5 June 754/5), The Netherlands, 716

  • Ciccarese, 337–65. Latin text with facing Italian translation. Includes brief introduction on the nature of this work with regard to the others in the collection. Provides some notes to the text.
  • Emerton, Ephraim. The Letters of St. Boniface. Records of Civilization: Sources & Studies 31. New York: Columbia University Press, 1940, 25–31. Presents an English translation based on the Kylie translation (below). The introduction lists three of six mss, early editions, translations; gives a biographical account of Boniface and his period, and a general description of his correspondence.
  • Kylie, Edward. The English Correspondence of St. Boniface. King’s Classics. London: Chatto & Windus, 1911, 78–89. English translation of letters.
  • MGH Epistolae 3 (Merowingici et Karolini aevi 1) 252–57. Edition of Latin text by E. Dümmler.
  • M. Tangl, Die Briefe des heiligen Bonifatius und Lullus, MGH Epistolae selectae I (Berlin 1916), N° 10, pp. 7-15.
  • Rau, Reinhold, ed. Briefe des Bonifatius; Willibalds Leben des Bonifatius. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1968, 30–43. Annotated edition of Latin text with facing German translation.


  • Carozzi, Claude. Le Voyage de l’âme dans l’au-delà d’après la littérature latine, Ve-XIIIe siècle Le Voyage de l’âme dans l’au-delà d’après la littérature latine, Ve-XIIIe siècle (Rome: École Française de Rome, 1994), 195–226.

  • Sims-Williams, Patrick, “The Unseen World: The Monk of Wenlock’s Vision,” in ibid., Religion and Literature in Western England, 600–800, Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 243–72. Discusses the circumstances surrounding Boniface’s composition and traces the influences of the Visio Sancti Pauli,the Vision of Furseus, the Vision of Drythelm, as well as the Bible, various other works including Anglo-Saxon homilies and monastic folktales on the three parts of this text.

The Revelation of Moses, (1st C), Jewish

  • Gaster, Moses. “Hebrew Visions of Hell and Paradise.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, July 1893, 571–611. Includes English translations of the Revelation of Moses A (Gudulath Mosheh), which includes heaven, hell and paradise; and the Revelation of Moses B, which includes only heaven.


The Vision of Olav Asteson, Norwegian, early 13th C.


  • Liestøl, Knut, ed. Draumkvaede: A Norwegian Visionary Poem from the Middle Ages. Studia Norvegica I (1946) 3. Oslo: Aschenhoug (Nygaard), 1946. Presents the two most important versions in Old Norse (pp. 134–41), and an English verse translation (pp. 7–16). Liestøl’ s study includes a thoroughgoing analysis of the vision motifs in the poem and the probable sources – Tundale, Guntheim and Thurkill. He also discusses the name of the poem and the visionary, the different versions, parallels with and influence on other popular ballads, Norse matter, Anglo–Irish visionary literature, relations between England and Norway, and the author of the work.


  • Constable, “Gunthelm,” 99–100. Discusses the influence of the Vision of Gunthelm on the Vision of Olav Asteson.
  • Dinzelbacher, Peter. “Zur Entstehung vom Draumkvaede.” Skandinavistik 10(1980): 89–96. Traces the origins of this work in the tradition of eschatological and visionary literature.

An Old Irish Homily, Irish, mid-9th C.

  • Davies, Oliver, and Thomas O’Loughlin, ed. Celtic Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1999, 367.

The Vision of Orm, England, 1125/6

  • AB 75(1957):72–82. An edition by Hugh Farmer of the unique Latin manuscript (Oxford, Bodleian Fairfax 17) with a brief introduction outlining the simple plot and introducing Orm and the author of his story. Comparisons are made to Drythelm’s Vision in Bede’s Historia.


The Vision Book of Otloh of Emmeran, German, 11th C.

  • PL 146:341–88. Edition of Latin text: Vision of Monk Isaac, 368–70; Vision of the Empress Theophanu, 372–73.
  • Schmidt, Paul Gerhard, ed. Otloh von St. Emmeram. Liber Visionum. Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Quellen zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 13. Weimar: Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger, 1989. Edition of Latin text with German introduction.
  • Joyce, Ellen. “Visions, Readings and Identity in the Monastic Culture of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries: Otloh of St Emmeran and Guibert of Nogent. PhD Dissertation, University of Toronto, 2001.

  • —. “ Scribal Performance and Identity in the Autobiographical Visions of Otloh of St. Emmeram. (d. 1067).” Essays in Medieval Studies 22 (2005): 95-106. Discusses Otloh’s concerns in writing the Liber visionum with his own sense of himself and his community as well as his interest in moral edification and defending monastic interests. The argument is drawn from her dissertation, cited above.

  • Philipp–Schauwecker, Helga. “Othlo und die S. Emmeramer Fälschungen des 11 Jahrhunderts.” Historische Vereins für Oberpfalz und Regensburg, Verhandlungen 106(1966): 103–20. Discusses the connection between Otloh, St. Emmeran, and Dionysian rites.

  • Schauwecker, Helga. “Otloh von St. Emmeram. Ein Beitrag zur Bildungs and Frömmigkeit des 11 Jahrhunderts.” Ph.D. Diss.: University of Wurzburg, 1962; rpt. Studien und Mitteilungen zur Geschichte aus des Benediktiner-ordens 7 (1963): 3–20. Examines Otloh’s work, life, and thought.

  • Rockelein. Combines psychological and ethnological approaches in a study of Otloh of Emmeran with particular reference to the “collective” visions of Gottschalk, Thurkill, Tundale, and Owein (St. Patrick’s Purgatory).

  • Schröbler, Ingeborg. “Otloh von S. Emmeram und Hieronymus.” Beitrage zur Geschichte des Deutschen Sprache und Literatur (Tubingen) 79 (1957): 335–62.

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The Vision of Pachomius, Coptic, 350–900


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St. Patrick’s Purgatory, Irish, 1179–

The Apocalypse of Paul (Visio Pauli), Latin, early 3rd C.



  • Bremmer, Jan N. and Istvan Czachesz, eds. The Visio Pauli and the Gnostic Apocalypse of Paul. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha, 9. Leuven: Peeters, 2007.
  • Casey, R. “The Apocalypse of Paul.” Journal of Theological Studies 34 (1933):1–32.
  • Jirousková, Lenka. Die Visio Pauli: Wege und Wandlungen einer orientalischen Apokryphe im lateinischen Mittelalter unter Einschluß der alttsechischen und deutschsprachigen Textzeugen. Mittellateinische Studien und Texte, 34. Leiden: Brill, 2006.
  • van Ruiten, J. “The Four Rivers of Eden in the Apocalypse of Paul (Visio Pauli): The Intertextual Relationship of Genesis 2:10-14 and the Apocalypse of Paul 23:4.” In García Martínez, Florentino, and Gerard P. Luttikhuizen, eds. Jerusalem, Alexandria, Rome: Studies in Ancient Cultural Interaction in Honour of A. Hilhorst. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

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The Vision of St. Paul, late 4th C.

  • BHL 2:953–55; Suppl. 248–49; New Suppl. 696–700.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. Visio Sancti Pauli: The History of the Apocalypse in Latin together with Nine Texts. Studies and Documents 4. London and Toronto: Christophers, 1935.
  • for Irish texts.


  • Appel, Carl Ludwig Ernst, ed. Provenzalische Chrestomathie. Leipzig: O.R. Reisland, 1895, 177–79. Critical edition of Provencal version based on one ms and Bartsch edition (below).
  • Bartsch, Karl Friederich, ed. Denkmaler der provenzalischen Literatur. Stuttgart: Literarischer verien Bibilothek, 1856, 310–15. Diplomatic edition of Provencal version.
  • Brandes, Herman, ed. Visio Sancti Pauli; ein Beitrag zur Visionsliteratur mit einen deutschen und zwei lateinischen Texten. Gesellschaft für deutsche Philologie. Festschrift 5. Halle: M. Niemeyer, 1885. Edition of two shorter Latin versions, L2 and redaction I and IV; enumerates 22 different mss and gives the particulars of the French, English, Danish, and Slavonic forms of the legend.
  • Brandes, Herman, ed. Uber die Quellen der mittelenglischen Paulus-vision. Diss.: Halle, 1883.
  • Brandes, Herman, ed. “Uber die Quellen der Mittelenglischen Versionen der Paulus–Vision.” Englische Studien 7(1884):534–65. Discusses Greek and Latin versions and the Old English mss in an attempt to establish redactions. Presents an edition of the Latin text (redaction IV), pp. 544–47.
  • Dwyer, M.E. “An Unstudied Redaction of the Visio Pauli.” Manuscripta 32 (1988): 121–38. Vat. Pal. Lat 220, ff. 56r–60r, called Redaction XI, consisting of extracts from a long Latin version of the VP and interpolated material. Provides a transcription and continues the study of redactions of the VP developed by Silverstein.
  • Gardiner, 13–46. Includes English translation of the vision with notes and bibliography.
  • Healey, Antonette Di Paolo, ed. The Old English Vision of St. Paul. Speculum Anniversary Monographs 2. Cambridge, MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1978. Presents an annotated diplomatic edition of the Old English text of Oxford, Bodleian Junius 85–86 with facing Latin sources and source notes. Introductory material includes discussion of ms (composition, contents, and provenance), the Latin and Old English tradition of the VP, the language of the text, and elements of the Old English vision (body–soul legend, respite of the damned, correspondence of punishment to sin, and influences). Includes notes, glossary, word index, and selective bibliography. Rev. by Theodore Silverstein in Medium Aevum 50:120–22.
  • Hennecke, Edgar, and Wilhelm Schneemelcher, eds. New Testament Apocrypha. English trans, ed. by R.McL. Wilson. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1964, 2:755–98. English translation of the Latin text (Paris ms) published by James. Discusses the history of the text, translations, contents, and sources.
  • Horstmann, C. “Die Vision des Heiligen Paulus.” Englische Studien 1(1877): 293–99. Annotated diplomatic edition of Old English text based on the Vernon ms, with brief introduction.
  • Hyde, Douglas. Legends of Saints and Sinners. London: T.F. Unwin, 1915, 95–109. English translation of Irish vision, which was published in original language in Religious Songs of Connaught, vol. 2.
  • James, Montague Rhodes. Apocrypha anecdota. Texts and Studies 2.3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1893, 11–42. Annotated edition of Paris ms. Edition of Latin L1 version. Includes general introduction on apocrypha and a particular introduction of the long Latin version of the VP, discussing other versions and comparing the long Latin version with the Greek and Syriac texts and the abbreviated Latin version edited by Brandes.
  • James, ANT, 525–55. English translation based on the L1 text of the Paris ms, with readings and passages drawn from the Coptic, Greek, and Syriac versions.
  • Jeanroy, A., and A. Vignaux. Voyage au Purgatoire de St. Patrice: Visions de Tindal et de St. Paul: texts languedociens du quinzième siècle. Bibliothèque méridonale, ser. 1, vol. 8. Toulouse: E. Privat, 1903; rpt. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1971, 121–28. Diplomatic edition of Languedoc version found in ms Toulouse B.M. 894.
  • Jones, John Morris, and John Rhys. The Eludidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh. Anecdota Oxonensia. Medieval and Modern 6. Oxford: Clarendon, 1894.
  • Jirouskova, Lenka. Die Visio Paul: Wege und Wandlungen einer
    orientalischen Apokryphe im lateinischen Mittelalter.
    Mittellateinische Studien und Texte, no. 34. Leiden: Brill, 2006. A catalog with a full edition of extant Latin, Old Czech, and Middle High German Visio Pauli manuscripts, along with studies of this text and its relationship to the fuller account in the Apocalypse of Paul.
  • Kastner, L.E. “Les versions francaises inédites de la descente de Saint Paul en enfer.” Revue des langues romanes 48 (1905): 385–95; 49 (1906): 49–62, 321–51, 427–49. Presents editions of four French versions of the VP: the version of Henri d’Acri (pp. 385–95), an anonymous version (49–62); the version of Geoffroi de Paris (321–51); and a Burgundian version (427–49).
  • Kastner, L.E. “The Vision of Saint Paul by the Anglo–Norman Trovère Adam de Ross.” Zeitschrift für franzosische Sprache und Literatur 29 (1905–6): 274–90. Discusses mss; presents a critical edition of the Anglo–Norman text.
  • Luiselli Fadda, Anna Maria. “Una medita traduzione anglosassone della ‘Visio Pauli.” Studi Medievali ser. 3,15.1 (1974):482–95. Discusses the text found in Bodleian Junius 85 (eleventh century), and presents an Old Englitsh edition with facing Italian translation and critical apparatus.
  • Meyer, P. “La Déscente de Saint Paul en Enfer.” Romania 6 (1877): 11–16. Mentions five rhymed French versions and provides a critical edition based on three mss.: Paris B.N. Fr. 24429, 24432, and 15606.
  • Meyer, P. “La Descente de Saint Paul en Enfer, poème francais compose en Angleterre.” Romania 24 (1895):357–75, 589–91. Discusses a Latin ms, not included by Brandes, Paris B.N. 1631, and six rhymed French versions of the VP. Provides an annotated edition (pp. 365–75) of Toulouse B.M. 815. Briefly introduces the ms and work. Includes a reproduction of two illustrated pages.
  • Meyer, P. “Lgendes Hagiographiques en Francais.” Historie Littéraire de la France. Paris: Imprimerie National, 1906, 33:372. Lists six French verse versions: three composed in England; one by Adam de Ros, one by Gaufroi de Paris, and one by Henri d’Arci. Refers to Notices et extraits 35, 155–56, where the mss are enumerated.
  • Morris, Richard. Old English Miscellany. Early English Text Society 49. London: Trübner, 1872; rpt. New York: Greenwood, 1969. Annotated diplomatic edition of the Old English VP based on the Vernon ms.
  • Os, 264–66. Reprint of Meyer.
  • Owen. Discussion of French medieval accounts of hell and how in their treatments the authors disclose the general medieval idea of the Christian otherworid. Includes a diplomatic edition of the French text of the Vision of Paul from Dublin, Trinity College 951 Cl. 1.5.19.
  • Ozanam, Sources, 425–37. Annotated diplomatic edition of French Adam de Ros text of the thirteenth century.
  • PL 94:501–502. Latin text of redaction IV from Bede’s Homilies, Bk. 3.
  • Rutherfurd, Andrew. “The Vision of Paul.” Ante Nicene Fathers 9. Ed. by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. New York: Scribner’s, 1917–25, 149–66.English translation of Latin L1 version based on James, Apocrypha, with brief introduction.
  • Silverstein, Visio. Introduction covers the Western tradition of the Apocalypse of Paul: origin, spread, rise of different versions, and influences, focusing on the long Latin texts.  Presents editions of nine versions of Latin texts and redactions. Includes bibliography.
  • Villari, Antiche Leggende, 77–81. Annali 129. Italian edition based on Florence Cod. Mag. Cl. XXXVIII, 127, compared with Cod. Mag. Palch IV, 56 and Vat. Palatino 73.
  • Williams, J. E. C. “Irish Translations of the Visio Sancti Pauli.” Eígse 6 (1948–52): 127–43.Discusses briefly the development of the VP, Latin versions, its popularity in the Middle Ages, and two Irish translations, which he discusses with slightly greater detail, then presents diplomatic editions of both. Irish texts: the Royal Irish Academy 24 P25 and Liber Flavus Fergusiorum.
  • Acker, Paul. “The Going–Out of the Soul in the Buckling Homily IV.” English Language Notes 23 (1986):1–3. A brief discussion of the VP as the source for the going–out–of–the–soul passage in the Blickling Homily.
  • Ancona, 43–48. Treats the antecedents of Dante in general and gives some particular attention to the Paul, Brendan, Tundale, Patrick, and Alberic visions. He does not make firm connections between these and the Divine Comedy, but indicates a general milieu of vision literature, which does not detract from Dante’s originality.
  • Bartsch, Karl. Grundriss zur geschichte der provenzalischen literatur. Elberfeld: Fridericks, 1872, 57. Brief notice on ms: Paris La Vall. 14, B.L. 139.
  • Carey, John. “Visio Sancti Pauli and the Saltair’s Hell.” Eîgse 23 (1989):39–44. Discusses the relationship of the Saltairna Rann and the VP and concludes that the evidence indicates that Canto V drew heavily on a lost redaction of VP, probably a hybrid version based on redactions III and IV.
  • Casey, R. “The Apocalypse of Paul.” Journal of Theological Studies 34 (1933):1–32. Traces the development and transmission of the Apocalypse of Paul up to the Middle Ages.
  • Ciluffo, Gilda. “La versione anglosassone della Visio Paul.” Schede medievali 4 (1983):78–83. Comparison of two editions of the Anglo–Saxon text.
  • Dumville. Discusses the relationship between the Fís Adamnán and the VP.
  • Foster, 2:452–53, 645–486. Description and bibliography of the English Vision of St. Paul.
  • Hasenfratz, Robert. “Eisegan stefne (Christ and Satan 36a), the Visio Pauli, and ‘ferrea vox’ (Aeneid 6, 626).” Modern Philology 86 (1989): 398–410. The “iron voice” or “tongue” that drives home the unspeakable and everlasting torments of hell found in Anglo–Saxon homiletic literature probably has its source in a Latin redaction of the VP.
  • Mertens, Volker. “Die Frühumhd. ‘Visio Sancti Pauli.’ Untersuchungen zur Quellenfrage.” In Wurzburger Prosastudien. Ed. by Peter Kesting. Medium Aevum Philologische Studien 31. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1975, 1:77–91. Discusses the different versions of the Latin VP.
  • Owen, D.D.R. “The Vision of St. Paul’: The French and Provençal Versions and Their Sources.” Romance Philology 12 (1958): 33–51. Examines sources and discusses the latitude with which authors treated sources and, hence, the difficulty of clear cut lines of redactions.
  • Secret, F. “La Revelación de Sant Pablo.” Sefarad 28 (1968):45–67. Article on a 1494 printed text of a Spanish translation of the Apocalypse of Paul, with a listing of the contents, the text of the prolog, and the dedication of the “Ensis Pauli.”
  • Seymour, “Bringing Forth.” Discusses a tradition in the literature of dying where the soul is unwilling or unable to leave the body through certain members (mouth, nose, etc.) either because they are sanctified (in the case of the righteous person) or are guarded by devils (in the case of sinners). Mentions two visions of the otherworid in this context, Vision of St. Paul and the Vision of Ezra.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. “Irish Versions of the Vision of St. Paul.” Journal of Theological Studies 24(1922–23):54–59. Presents an English translation of the Old Irish VP based on the fragmentary text in the Liber Flavus Fergusiorum and compares it briefly with the Latin text of the VP. Discusses another later and more popultar Irish VP (see Hyde), examining elements of the Irish Paul visions and their relationship to other versions of the VP as well as to works such as the Vision of Merlino. Concludes that other medieval versions of the VP were known in Ireland from an early date and that older versions (especally the Latin) were probably also studied in Ireland.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. “Studies in the Apocalypse of Paul.” Diss.: Harvard University, 1930.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. “Dante and the Visio Pauli.” Modern Language Notes 47 (1932):397–99. Links the pit of the eleventh canto of the Divine Comedy to the scene between Paul and the Archangel Michael in the VP, claiming that, if it is not merely a coincidence, it indicates evidence of Dante’s knowledge of the VP.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. “The Source of a Provençal Version of the ‘Vision of St. Paul.’” Speculum 8 (1933):353–58. Proposes redaction I or II as basis for the Provencal text rather than redaction IV, as was proposed by Jeanroy and Vignaux (555).
  • Silverstein, “Leofric.” Discusses the bridge in a Latin redaction of the Visio Pauli in relationship to the Vision of Leofric. However, he concludes, that the bridge in Leofric is clearly dependent on the bridge in the Dialogues of Gregory the Great and therefore does not present a reason to suspect an earlier date of composition for this redaction of the VP.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. “Did Dante Know the Vision of Saint Paul?” (Harvard) Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature 19 (1937): 231–47. Examines the question of direct influence of the VP on Dante, concluding that a general influence through the broader tradition of vision literature seems likely.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. “The Vision of Saint Paul: New Links and Patterns in the Western Tradition.” Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Age 34 (1959):199–248. Reconstruction of the particular forni of the Latin ancestor of the main corpus of the western redactions of the Visio Pauli and the relation of these redactions to each other.
  • Silverstein, Theodore.  “The Date of the Apocalypse of Paul.” Medieval Studies 24 (1962): 335–48. Discusses the origin and development of this work from the Greek text of the fifth century to its Syriac, Coptic, and Latin versions, recontact with the Greek text in the twelfth century resulting in new Latin and German versions.
  • Silverstein, Theodore.  Visiones et revelaciones S. Pauli. Una nuova tradizione di testi latini nel Medio Evo. Rome: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1974. Discusses the problem of determining influences and relationship among versions of the VP, the relationship to the Divine Comedy and the other vision literature. This is basically a discussion of the state of studies when Silverstein undertook his work on the VP. He provides a stemma of the relationship of the texts and establishes a history of the Latin versions and their family from the sixth to the fifteenth century.
  • Silverstein, Theodore. “The Graz und Zurich Apocalypse of Saint Paul: An Independent Medieval Witness to the Greek.” Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt. Ed. by J.J.G. Alexander and M.T. Gibson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976, 166–80. Discussion of these two texts demonstrating a further medieval access to the ancient Greek text of the apocalypse, independent of the main Latin tradition. These texts also offer additional witness to the nature of the ancient text itself and the variant forms which it took.
  • • Stegmüller, Fr. Repertorium Biblicum Medii Aevi. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto Francesco Suarez, Vol. 1, 1940 (1950), 240–45. Lists editions of various versions (both editions and some mss.) According to Silverstein: erroneous summary of Western tradition of VP.
  • Tabor, James D. Things Unutterable: Paul’s Ascent to Paradise. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986. A study of Paul’s thought and religious experience set in its wider Jewish/Greco–Roman context. Chapter 4 focuses on the ascent described in 2 Corinthians 12:2–4, seeing it as Paul’s own particular vision and version of that most general and Hellenistic (and human) hope — escape from mortality. Not really about the Visio Pauli, but about the biblical text and its significance in Paul’s theology of salvation and apocalypse.
  • Ward, H.L.D. Catalog of Romances in the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum. London: British Museum, 1883–93, 2 (1893):397–416. Includes description of Latin mss: Royal 8 E. xvii, Harley 2851, Arundel 52, Add. 26,770, Royal 13 C. vi., Royal 11 B. iii., Royal 11 B. x., Royal 8 F. vi., Royal 8 C. vii.; French mss: Cotton Vesp. A. vii, Add. 15,606; and English ms: Add. 22,283.
  • Wright, Charles D. “Beowulf, Blickling Homily and the Visio Pauli.” Old English Newsletter 22, n.2 (1989): Appendix 29–39. Abstract of paper in Anglo–Saxon studies conference discussing significant verbal parallels between the VP and the BH and similar but less conclusive parallels between the VP and Beowulf, indicating that both have drawn on the VP, probably in a vernacular version.
  • Wright, Charles D. “Some Evidence for an Irish Origin of Redaction XI of the Visio Pauli.” Manuscripta 34 (1990): 34–44. Responding to an article by Dwyer (545), this author draws attention to evidence for an Insular, probably Irish, origin; also corrects a few errors in the Dwyer transcript.

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The Apocalypse of Peter, Greek/Ethiopic, mid 2nd C.



  • Bauckham, Richard. The Fate of the Dead: Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Leiden: Brill, 1998; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2008. Includes a chapter on “The Apocalypse of Peter: A Jewish Christian Apocalypse from the Time of Bar Kokhba” (160–258).
  • Beck, Eric, J., Justice and Mercy in the Apocalypse of Peter: A New Translation and Analysis of the Purpose of the Text. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019. New English translation relying more significantly on the Akhmi¯m fragment, plus an analysis of the text.
  • Buchholz, D.D. Your Eyes Will Be Opened: A Study of the Greek (Ethiopic) Apocalypse of Peter. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 97. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1988. Ethiopic text and translation.
  • Grébaut, S. “Littérature éthiopienne pseudo-clémentine.” Revue de l’orient Chrétien 15 (1910) 198–208, 307–8. Ethiopic Text with French translation (208–14, 316–17).
  • Hennecke, 2: 663–83. Translations of Ethiopic and Greek texts in facing columns.
  • Klostermann, E. Apokrypha I: Reste des Petrusevangeliums, der Petrusapokalypse und der Kerygma Petra. Kleine Texte für Theologische Vorlesung und Übingen 3.1 Bonn: A. Marcus & E. Weber, 1903, 8–11. Greek text.
  • James, M. R. The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924; rpt., 1955), 504–21, English translation.
  • Rutherfurd, Andrew “The Apocalypse of Peter.” In The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Ed. by Allan Menzies. Vol. 9. 5th ed. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1912, 141–47. English translation.


  • Bremmer, Jan. “Orphic, Roman, Jewish and Christian Tours of Hell: Observations on the Apocalypse of Peter.” In Otherworlds and Their Relationship to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions. Ed. Tobias Nicklas, Joseph Verheyden, et al. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 305–21. Examines the practice, inspired by the Orphic tradition, of adapting afterlife crimes and punishments into new circumstances, as Greek ideas were transformed by Jews and Jewish ideas were transformed by Christians, particularly in the Apocalypse of Peter.
  • Dieterich, A. Nekyia: Beiträge zur Erklärung der neuentdeckten Petrusapokalypse. Leipzig and Berlin: Teubner, 1913.
  • James, M. R. “The Recovery of the Apocalypse of Peter.” Church Quarterly Review 159 (1915): 1–36.
  • Maier, Daniel C., Jörg Frey, and Thomas J. Kraus, The Apocalypse of Peter in Context (Leuven: Peters, 2024). J. Frey, “Petrine Traditions and Petrine Authorship Constructions in Early Christianity,” 1–33; T.J. Kraus, “Manuscripts of the Apocalypse of Peter: Some Crucial Questions” 34–52; T. Nicklas, “Die griechische Petrusapokalypse und paulinische Literatur. Beobachtungen am Text des Akhmîm-Codex,” 53–71; M.R. Henning, “Socio-Economic Status among the Damned? Reading the Carceral Bodies of the Apocalypse of Peter in their Ancient Context,” 72–92; V M. Sommer, “The Ethics of Hell. Righteousness in the Apocalypse of Peter and Early Christian Discourses about Ethics,” 93–111; C. Olivares, “Contrasting Places of Joy and Punishment in the Akhmîm Text of the Apocalypse of Peter through Sensory Experience Textual Lens” 112–131; M.R. Jost, “Judgment, Punishment, and Hell in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Apocalypse of Peter,” 132–52; J.N. Bremmer, “The Apocalypse of Peter, 2 Peter and Sibylline Oracles II. Alexandrian Debates?” 153–77; D.C. Maier, “The Ethiopic Pseudo-Clementine Framework of the Apocalypse of Peter. Chances and Challenges in the African Transmission Context,” 178–213; X E. Grypeou, “‘I Have Given You the Keys of Heaven and Earth.’ The Arabic Apocalypse of Peter and the History of Christian Apocalyptic Literature,” 214–232; E.B. Fiori, “‘Close and yet so faraway,’ The Apocalypse of Peter and the Apocalypse of Paul,” 233–52; J. Dochhorn, “Der Acherusische See als Reinigungsort in christlicher und jüdischer Nachtodmythologie,” 253–98; A. Bausi, “On the Manuscript Tradition of the Ethiopic Mashafa Qalementos (Book of Clement, CAe 1957). News From Eritrea,” 299–317; T.M. Erho, “New Evidence for the Apocalypse of Peter in Ethiopia?” 318–76; E.J. Beck, “Translation of the Ethiopic Apocalypse of Peter including the Pseudo-Clementine Framework,” 377–400; T.M. Erho and D.C. Maier, “Tanasee/EMML Microfilm Correspondences. An Overview, 401–2.

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The Martyrdom of St Philotheus, Coptic, 7th C.


  • Bibliothecae Pierpont Morgan codices coptici photographice expressi. Rome, 1922. 41:149–204. Photo reproduction of complete coptic text.
  • Orlandi, T. “Il ‘dossier copto’ di San Filoteo d’Antiochi.” Analecta Bollandiana 96 (1978): 117–20. Nine fragments of the text.
  • Rogozhina, Anna. “And from His Side Came Blood and Milk”: The Martyrdom of St Philotheus of Antioch in Coptic Egypt and Beyond. Gorgias Eastern Christian Studies 52. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2019. A study of the text (see below) with an appendix that includes an English translation of the Coptic Martyrdom.


  • Rogozhina, Anna. “A ‘Tour of Hell’ in the Martyrdom of St Philotheus of Antioch.” In Coptic Society, Literature and Religion from Late Antiquity to Modern Times. Orientalia Lovaniensia Anelecta 247. Tenth International Congress of Coptic Studies, Rome, September 17–22, 2012. Ed. by Paola Buzi, Alberto Camplani, and Fecerico Contardi. Leuven: Peeters, 2016, 1129–36. Rogozhina discusses the manuscripts and versions of this text and examines it in the context of related texts, such as the Martyrdon of St Macarius of Antioch, the Encomium to Bishop Pisentius of Keft, and the Apocalypse of St Paul.
  • —  “And from His Side Came Blood and Milk”: The Martyrdom of St Philotheus of Antioch in Coptic Egypt and Beyond. Gorgias Eastern Christian Studies 52. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2019. In this book, based on her Oxford dissertation (2015), Rogozhina examines the cults of the saints in Coptic Egypt, focusing primarily on the early Christian martyr Philotheus of Antioch, and more specifically, the Martyrdom of St Philotheus of Antioch (Pierpont Morgan M583). Appendix includes an English translation of the Coptic Martyrdom.

The Vision of a Poor Woman, early 9th C., after 818

  • Ciccarese, 394–401. Latin text based on Houben (below) with facing Italian translation. Includes brief introduction on the nature of this work as a political vision. Provides some notes to the text.
  • Houben, Hubert. “Visio cuisdam pauperculae mulieris. Uberlieferung und Herkunft eines frühmittel alterlichen Visionstexts (mit Neuedition).” Zeitschrift für Geschichte des Oberrheins 124, n.f. 85 (1976):31–42. Discusses mss and previous editions, and provides a critical edition of Latin text.
  • Wattenbach, Wilhelm, and Wilhelm Levison, ed. Visio cuiusdam pauperculae muleris. Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter bis zur Atte des Dreizehnten Jahrhundert. 5 vols. Berlin: W. Hertz 1885,1: 260–61; rpt. by Heinz Lowe in DGQM Vorzeit und Karolinger 3: 317–18 (Weimar, 1957).
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The Vision of Rainerius by Peter Damian, Italian, before 1045.

  • Peter Damian. Lettere. Edited by K. Reindel, G. I. Gargano, N. D’Acunto. Rome: Città Nuova, 2000, 294–301. Latin text with facing Italian translation.
  • Peter Damian, and Owen J. Blum. Letters 1–30. Fathers of the Church, Medieval Continuation 1. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1989, 134–39. English translation of Letter 14.
  • PL 144:306–9. Latin text, designated as Book 4, Letter 7.
  • MGH: Die Briefe des deutschen Kaiserzeit: Petrus Damiani. Die Briefe des Petrus Damiani. Edited by K. Reindel. Munich: Monumenta Germaniae Historica, 1983. Letter 14 in Vol. 4:145–50.

The Dream of Hell, by Raoul de Houdenc (c. 1165–c. 1230), French, early 13th C.


  • Raoul de Houdenc. Le songe d’enfer suivi de La voie de paradis: poèmes du XIIIe sièce; précédés d’une notice historique et critique et suivis de notes bibliographiques et d’eclaircissements par Philéas Lebesgue. Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1974. Provençal with Modern French translation.
  • Raoul de Houdenc. The songe d’enfer of Raoul de Houdenc: An Edition Based on All Extant Manuscripts. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fur Romanische Philologie 190. Tubingen: M. Niemeyer, 1984. English and French.

The Vision of a Reliable Man or The Vision of Stephanus de Marusiaco’s Father, French, before 1261

Night in Hell, by Arthur Rimbaud (1854–91), French, 1873

Le Roman d’Enéas (c. 1160), French.

  • Yunck, John A., trans. Eneas: A Twelfth-Century Romance. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974.
  • Online Bibliography of manuscripts, editions, and translations.


  • Online Bibliography of critical works.


The Vision of Rothcarius, French, early 9th C.

  • Wattenbach, W., ed. Anzeiger für Kunde der deutschen Vorzeit, n.f. 22 (1875): 72–74. Brief introduction, which discusses mss, followed by a diplomatic edition of the Latin text based on the Petersburg manuscript.

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No Exit, Jean-Paul Sartre, French, 1944

The Sawles Warde, English, 1210–1215

Man and Superman, by George Bernard Shaw, Irish, 1903

The Vision of Stephanus de Marusiaco’s Father
or The Vision of a Reliable Man, French, before 1261

  • Baumgarte, Susanne, ed. Summa bonorum : eine deutsche Exempelsammlung aus dem 15. Jahrhundert nach Stephan von Bourbon : Edition und Untersuchung. Texte des späten Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit 40. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 1999. Edition of Middle High German text from the editor's doctoral dissertation Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 1997.
  • Lecoy de la Marche, A. Anecdotes historiques, legendes et apolyges tirés du recuel inédit d’Etienne de Bourbon, dominicain du xjiie siècle. Paris: Rounard, 1877.

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The Vision of Sunniulf, French, 563

  • Buchner, Rudolf, ed. Gregory of Tours, Historiarum libri decem. Berlin: Rutten & Loening, 1957, 1:40. Latin edition with facing German translation.
  • Dalton, O.M., trans. Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1927, 2:142. English translation based on Omont and Collon edition (608). Introduction discusses Gregory, the mss, and earlier printed editions of the Historia, and also the history of the Merovingian kingdom, church, and life.
  • MGH SRM 1:1: Bk. 4, ch. 33. Latin text edited by B. Krusch and W. Levison.
  • Omont, Henri and Gaston Collon, ed. Gregoire de Tours, Histoire des Francs, Texte des Manuscrits de Corbie at de Bruxelles. Collection de textes pour servir à l’tude et à l’enseignement d’histoire. Parts: Picard/ Poupardin, 1913, 132–33. Annotated edition of Latin text.
  • PL 71:295.
  • Ciccarese, Maria Pia. “Alle origini della letterature delle visioni: it contributo di Gregorio di Tours.” Studi Storico Religiosi 5 (1981):251–66.
  • Jones, Allen E. Death and the Afterlife in the Pages of Gregory of Tours: Religion and Society in Late Antique Gaul. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press, 2020. Examines Gregory”s thought on the afterlife and specifically on bodily resurrection at the Last Judgment, purgation in the afterlife, and the Particular Judgment. See pp. 60, 62, 164–65, 195.

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Heaven and Its Wonders and Hell: From Things Heard
and Seen,
Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772), Swedish, 1758


The Acts of Thomas, Greek, first half of 3rd C.

  • Bonnet, M. Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha 2.2. Leipzig: H. Mendelssohn, 1903, 99–288. Greek text.
  • Hennecke, 2:425. English translation of Greek text with bibliography, 2:425–26.
  • Klijn, A.F.J. The Acts of Thomas. Novum Testamentum Supplements 5. Leiden: Brill, 1962. Translation of Syriac text with introduction and commentary.
  • Wright. W. Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles. London : Williams and Norgate, 1871; rpt. Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1968, 1: 172–333, 2: 146–298. Syriac text in volume 1, translation in volume 2.


  • Bornkamm, G. Mythos und Legende in der apokryphen Thomas-Akten. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1933.

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The Vision of Thurkill (Visio Thurkilli), English, 1206



  • Bigogiari, D. “Were There Theatres in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Romanic Review 37 (1946): 201–24. In response to the Loomis and Cohen article (below), he discusses the words relating to “theater” as rhetorical survivals from ancient texts; in the case of Thurkill these words were used in a most imaginative way, and therefore no indication that theaters actually existed during this period.
  • Gurevich. Discusses the problem of the interrelationship of oral and written traditions, in the VT and the Vision of Gottschalk, which are in constant and complex interaction.
  • James, M.R., ed. Lists of Manuscripts Formerly in Peterborough Abbey Library. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the Bibliographical Society, 1926.
  • Galler, Matthias, Fritz Kemmler, Jessica Barr, and Courtnay Konshuh. “Medieval Visions of the Otherworld.” Connotations 16.1.3: 129–43; 17:129–43; 20:1,11, 12–22, 23–33.
  • King, Georgiana Goddard. “The Vision of Thurkill and Saint James of Compostela.” Romanic Review 10 (1919): 38–47. Looks at Thurkill from the point of view of its connections with other visions, its dream psychology, and the fragments of pilgrim’s lore that circulated regarding Compostela and other shrines along the pilgrimage route; suggests that the theater in Thurkill has its origins in amphitheaters or bullrings. Article quotes freely from Ward translation (above) commenting on the above topics along the way.
  • Liestøl, 96–101. Synopsis of the VT and a discussion of it as a possible source for the Vision of Olav Asteson (Draumkvaede).
  • Loomis, R.S., and G. Cohen. “Were There Theaters in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries.” Speculum 20 (1945): 92–98. Uses passages regarding “deludis theatralibus” in Thurkill as one of nine passages providing evidence of “theaters” in the twelfth century. (See Bigogiari above.)
  • Marshall, Mary H. “Theatre in the Middle Ages: Evidence from Dictionaries and Glosses.” Symposium 4 (1950): 1–39, 366–89. Using evidence from glossaries and dictionaries, the author concludes that the word “theater” was a very inclusive word, generally referring to an open place for spectacles. Discussion of Thurkill, pp. 377–78.
  • Rockelein. Combines psychological and ethnological approaches in a study of Otloh of Emmeran with particular reference to the “collective” visions of Gottschalk, Thurkill, Tundale, and Owayne (St. Patrick’s Purgatory).
  • Schmidt, P.O. “The Vision of Thurkill.” Journal of the Warburg and ourtauld Institutes 41 (1978):50–64. Examination of relationship between the visionary and redactor, and an investigation of the influences to which the visionary’s account is subjected before it takes its final form. Concludes that an unknown redactor has “expanded, modified, abridged and enhanced” the visionary’s account based on borrowings, although the figure of Thurkill is not invented. Provides information on four mss (p. 57).
  • Ward, 2 (1893):506–15. Description of Latin mss: Royal 13 D. v. and Cotton Julius D. v.

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Discourse on Saint Michael the Archangel, by Timothy, Archbishop of Alexandria (378–84), Coptic, late 4th C.

The Vision of Tundale (Visio Tnugdali), Irish, 1149

  • Bellemans, A.T.W., et al. Tondaius’ visioen. Naar het Gentsche handschrift met inleiding, aanteekeningen en bibliographie. Antwerp: Nederlandsche Boekhandel, 1945. Dutch edition.
  • Castellane. Ayssi comensa lo libre de Tindal. N.p. P. unk., 1890. Provençal and French edition.
  • Cavagna, Mattia. La Vision de Tondale: Les Versions Françaises De Jean De Vignay David Aubert Regnaud Le Queux. Paris: Champion, 2008.
  • —. La Vision de Tondale et Ses Versions Françases (Xiiie-Xve Siècles) : Contribution À L'étude De La Littérature Visionnaire Latine Et Française. Nouvelle Bibliothèque Du Moyen Âge, Volume 118. Paris: Honoré Champion Éditeur, 2017.
  • Corazzini, Francesco, ed. Visione di Tundalo. Scelta di curiosità litterarie inedite o rare 128. Bologna: Gaetano Romagnoli, 1872. Contains an edition of the Italian text based on five mss. The brief introduction discusses the narrative; the original Latin text, mss, and editions; other translations from the Latin; and the Italian text and mss.
  • Dahlgren, Fredrik August. Skrifter till läsning för Klosterfolk. Efter gamla handskrifter utg. Stockholm: Norstedt, 1875. Swedish edition.
  • Friedel, V.–H., and Kuno Meyer, ed. La Vision de Tondale, textes français, anglo–normand et irlandais. Paris: H. Champion, 1907. Editions of the French prose versions (London B.L. Add. 9771 and Paris B.N. Fr. 763) and the Anglo-Norman verse fragment (Dublin, Trinity College Cod. membr. vel. in quarto, no. 312) and Irish fragment (Dublin, Trinity College Ms H. 3. 18). The last translated by Muirgheas mac Paidin í Maoilchanaire, c. 1510. Introduction on Tundale, Marcus (the author), the Irish setting and characters, the date, and the connection to Regensburg.
  • Gardiner, Eileen, ed. “An Edition of the Middle English ‘Vision of Tundale.’” Ph.D. Diss.: Fordham University, 1980. A critical edition of the Middle English text based on the five existing manuscripts.
  • Gardiner, 149–95. English translation of Latin vision with notes and bibliography.
  • Giuliari, Giovanni Battista C. Il Libro di Theodolo, o vero la Visione di Tantalo. Bologna: Gaetano Romagnoli, 1870. Edition of an Italian (Veronese) version of Tundale with a description of the fourteenth century ms in the library of Verona, a discussion of the language of the text, and also a brief examination of the relationship of this work to the Divine Comedy.
  • Ivsic, Stjepan. “‘Tundalovo videnje.’ u Lulicevu zborniku.” Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti 41(1948): 119–57. Text in Croatian and Italian.
  • Jagíc, V. “Zur Visio Tundali.” Archiv für Slavische Philologie 35 (1914): 501–13. Edition of Old Croatian fragment.
  • Jeanroy, A., and A. Vignaux. Voyage au Purgatoire de St. Patrice: Visions de Tindal et de St. Paul: texts languedociens du quinzième siècle. Bibliothèque méridonale, ser. 1, vol. 8. Toulouse: E. Privat, 1903; rpt. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1971, 55–119. Provides an edition of the Languedoc text of VT found in Toulouse B.M. 894.
  • Kraus, Carl von. Deutsche Gedichte des zwolften jahrhunderts. Halle: M. Niemeyer, 1894, 217–46.
  • Lehner, Hans-Christian, and Maximilian Nix. Visio Tnugdali: Vision Des Tnugdal. Fontes Christiani, Band 74. Freiburg: Verlag Herder, 2018. Includes text of original Latin with facing German translation. Introduction discusses the work, its thematic focus, aspects and structure of the afterlife,
  • Mearns, Rodney, ed. The Vision of Tundale, edited from BL MS Cotton Caligula A II. Middle English Texts 18. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1985. An edition of the Middle English text based on the Cotton ms.
  • Palmer, Nigel F., ed. Visio Tnugdali: The German and Dutch Translations and Their Circulation in the Later Middle Ages. Münchener Texte und Untersuchungen der deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters 76. Munich and Zurich: Artemis, 1982. Discusses mss, the Latin text and its transmission, the German and Dutch translations; provides description of mss and early printed editions; also discusses circulation of vernacular versions. In an appendix lists other German and Dutch otherworld visions.
  • PL 212:1038–55. Latin version of VT from Helinand of Froidmont’s Chronicon.
  • Peters, Emil. Die Vision des Tnugdalus: Em Beitrag zur Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters. Wissenschaftliche Beitrage zum Jahresbericht des Dorotheen städtisches Realgymnasium zu Berlin Ostern. Berlin: R. Gaertners, 1895. Introduction discusses the origin and development of the vision legend. Presents modern German translations of the ‘Vision of the Soldier’ from the Dialogues of Gregory the Great, the Vision of Drythelm, and the Vision of Tundale (rpt. from Wagner, below), the latter preceded by an introduction of its own.
  • Picard, Jean–Michel, trans. The Vision of Tnugdal. Intro. by Y. de Pontfarcy. Dublin: Four Courts, 1989. English translation from the Latin, includes bibliography.
  • Pontfarcy, Yolande de,ed. L’au-delà au Moyen Age: “Les Visions du Chavelier Tondal” de David Aubert et Sa source la “Visio Tnugdali” de Marcus. Bern: Peter Lang, 2010. Introduction covers the French versions of the text, Margaret of York and her manuscript (Getty MS 30), its scribe, David Aubert, and its illuminator, Simon Marmion, the Latin text of Marcus and his context, and the genre of other world visions. The book presents an edition of the Getty text in Old French, with the Latin text beneath and a facing modern French translation with notes below. Also included is a table of rubrics, a glossary, an index of proper names and a bibliography.
  • Saggio di un volgarizzamento inedito della visione di Tundale. N.p.: P. unk., 1886. Not seen. Edition of Italian text.
  • Schade, Oscar, ed. Visio Tnugdali. Halle: Libraria Orphanotrophei, 1869. Latin edition.
  • Turnbull, W.B.D.D., ed. The Visions of Tundale: Together with Metrical Moralizations and Other Fragments of Early Poetry. Edinburgh: Thomas G. Stevenson, 1843, 1–76. A diplomatic edition of the Middle English text from a ms in the Advocates collection of the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. Introduction discusses the Cotton ms in the British Library and various early printed editions.
  • Verdeyen, R. ed. Tondalus’ Visioen: Naar een Brusselschhandschrift uit gegeven. Van alle tijden 4. Groningen: J.B. Wolters, 1921. Annotated diplomatic edition of Dutch text with introduction in Dutch.
  • Verdeyen, R., and J. Endepols. Tondalus’ Visionen en St. Patricus’ Vagevuur. Ghent: Siffer/Koninklijke Vlaamsche Academie, 1914–17, 2:1–177. Annotated critical edition of Middle Dutch texts.
  • Villari. Diplomatic edition of Latin text (3–22) based on ms in the Spencer Library and critical edition of Italian text (23–50) based on four editions.
  • Vincent of Beauvais, Vol. 4 (Speculum historiale): 1127–33.Bk. 27, ch. 8–104: Latin version of text entitled De raptu anime Tundali et eius visione.
  • Wagner, Albrecht, ed. Visio Tnugdali lateinisch und altdeutsch. Erlangen: Andreas Deichert, 1882. Introduction with editions of Latin (prose 1–56, verse 59–110) and Old German (113–86) texts.
  • Wagner, Albrecht, ed. Das Mittelenglische Gedicht über the Vision des Tundalus. Halle: M. Niemeyer, 1893. A critical edition of the Middle English text based on four mss, the Edinburgh ms, the Bodley ms, and the two British Library mss, using the Royal ms in the B.L. as the base text.
  • Ancona, 523–59. Treats the antecedents of Dante in general and gives some particular attention to the Paul, Brendan, Tundale, Patrick and Alberic visions. He does not make firm connections between these and the Divine Comedy, but indicates a general millieu of vision literature, which does not detract from Dante’s originality.
  • Boas, 154–74. Study of “primitivism” which examines the idea of the earthly paradise using several examples but in particular the Vision of Tundale, St. Patrick’s Purgatory, and St. Brendan’s Voyage.
  • Carozzi, Claude. “Structure et fonction de la Vision de Tnugdal.” Faire Croire: Modalités de la diffusion e de la réception des messages religieus du xiie au e siècle. Collection de l’Ecole Francaise de Rome 51. Rome: Ecole Francaise de Rome, 1981, 223–34. Discusses the questions of purgatory and physical punishment in the otherworld with particular reference to contemporary theological works on the same questions.
  • Foster, 2:455–56, 648. Description and bibliography on the Middle English Vision of Tundale.
  • Gardiner, Eileen. “A Solution to the Problem of Dating in the Vision of Tundale.Medium Aevum 51(1982): 86–90. Examines the thesis presented by Marshall (below) and presents a solution to what Marshall sees as internal contradictory information in the vision regarding its year, 1149. Proposes that the vision occurred within the year from March 25, 1148 to 1149.
  • Garrigues, Marie–Odilon. “L’auteur de la Visio Tnugdali Honorius Augustodunensis?” Studia Monastica 29.1 (1987):19–62. Examines in detail the possible authorship of Honorius Augustodunensis, finding that the evidence is not conclusive.
  • Garrigues, Marie–Odilon. “Une oeuvre retrouvée d'Honorius Augustodunensis?” Studia Monastica 31 (1989):7–48.
  • Kenney, Sources, 741–42. Brief discussion of the text, list of mss, and a bibliography up to 1929.
  • Krebs, Reinhard. “Zu den Tundalusvisionen des Marcus und Alber.” Mittelalter Jahrbuch 11 (1978): 168–98. A comparison of the Latin and the Middle-High German versions for their political and religious perspectives.
  • Kren, Thomas, and Roger S. Wieck. The Visions of Tondal from the Library of Margaret of York. Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1990. Contains essays on the tradition of visionary literature in the Middle Ages, the library of Margaret of York, and on the illuminator and illuminations of this particular manuscript; presents color reproductions of the miniatures along with a translation of parts of the text. Includes a select bibliography.
  • Lawlor, H. J. “The Biblical Text in Tundal’s Vision.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 36.c.19 (1924):351–74. Biblical texts were available in Ireland in two versions: an Old Latin text and the Vulgate. Based on a comparison of the VT with these two biblical versions, there is evidence that Marcus used the Old Latin text of the gospels, Apocalypse, probably Acts, and the Epistles, except for the Pauline Epistles, which were mainly O.L. with a mixture of Vulgate. His psalter was of the Vulgate with a mixture of O.L.
  • Lewis, Huw Aled. “The Vision of the Knight Túngano in the Literatures of the Ibelian Peninsula.” Speculum 72 (1997): 85–99. Examines ten lost and extant texts in terms of their structures and analogues and their descriptions of the otherworld.
  • Marshall, J. C. Douglas. “Three Problems in the ‘Vision of Tundale.’” Medium Aevum 44 (1975): 14–22. Discusses the discrepancy between the date given by the author for the vision and the events attributed to that date, and dates it alternatively four or more years after 1149. Claims that the apparent inconsistencies in the presentation of Tundale result because this is the first vision of a sinner, and the author falls back on traditional treatments of the visionary in heaven, making Tundale seem better than he was originally described. Claims that the reason for the scarcity of Celtic influences in what is supposedly an Irish work is because the author is freely innovating with a more complex tale.
  • Meneses, Paolo. “Le recit hagiographique expression doctrinaire de la spiritualite medievale.” Diogene 139 (1987): 53–72.
  • Mussafia, Adolfo. Sulla Visione di Tundalo. Vienna: C. Gerold, 1871. Discusses the author and composition of the Vision of Tundale and the abbreviated versions (e.g. in Vincent of Beauvais’ Speculum historiale); compares the opening chapters in various versions to establish the earliest versions; discusses the German, Dutch, English, Swedish, Icelandic, Spanish, Provencali, French, and Italian versions – often providing mss and/or editions. Discusses two Italian versions in particular. Appendix provides an edition of the Latin text of the Visio Ezra, which occurs in a ms from Heiligenkreuz with a Visio Tundalo and a Visio Wettini. The point of this small book (52 pages) is to examine the relationship among different versions, especially since Mussafia considers this the most important vision of heaven and hell except for the Divine Comedy.
  • Ovidio. In the context of Dante’s “Purgatorio” Ovidio discusses the non–eternal nature of punishment in the VT; also discusses the Vision of Alberic in this context.
  • Rockelein. Combines psychological and ethnological approach in a study of Otloh of Emmeran with particular reference to the “collective” visions of Gottschalk, Thurkill, Tundale, and Owein (St. Patrick’s Purgatory).
  • Seymour, St. John Drelincourt. “Studies in The Vision of Tundale.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 37.c.4 (1926): 87–106. Discusses how this vision casts an important light on the development of diocesan episcopacy between the Synods of Rathbreasail and Kells, and discusses Marcus as a supporter of the reforms in the Irish church. It also presents a developed form of the newer eschatological views (especially in connection with the purgatorial doctrine), which came into Ireland as part of the reform movement of the first half of the twelfth century. “Possibly it was written with the object of making these views popular.” Seymour identifies many historical places and characters in the VT. He also devotes attention to dating, placing the vision in 1148 and the composition in 1149. The VT represents views on eschatology more in line with western Christendom then previously in Ireland. Discusses biblical versions (see Lawlor above), liturgical elements, sources (Virgil, Rule of St. Benedict, Gregory’s Dialogues, and the visions of Drytheim, the Monk of Wenlock, the Boy William, Adamnán, Alberic and Wetti).
  • Seymour, “Eschatology.” An account of the views held by the early Irish church on the otherworid and particularly on the development of the purgatorial doctrine. Discusses both imrama and visions (Furseus, Laisrn Adamnán, and Tundale; plus the non–Irish Drytheim and Monk of Wenlock). Covers heaven, hell, division of souls, fire of doom, and purgatory. He argues that before the ninth century the Irish church conceived of hell as a place from which souls could be released through the intervention of a saint or the pious deeds of the living. From the tenth century purgatory becomes separate from hell and the later Irish visions describe a separate purgatorial state –reflecting a view more in line with orthodoxy and probably related to the revolution in ecclesiastical matters taking place in Ireland before the close of the twelfth century.
  • Spilling, Herrad. Die Visio Tnugdali: Eigenart und Stellung in der mittelalterlichen Visionsliteratur bis zum Ende des 12 Jahrhunderts. Munchener Beitrage zue Mediavistik und Renaissance Forschung 21. Munich: Arbeo–Gesellschaft, 1975. Examines the VT as a work reflecting a particular medieval spirit; discusses the author and development of the work; the topography and the structure of its otherworid, its ethical foundation, its literary merit, concluding with an overall analysis of the place of vision literature in the Middle Ages. Two excursuses discuss the metamorphosis of Lucifer and the tradition of St. Patrick’s Purgatory.
  • Verdeyen, R. “La Date de la Vision de Tondale.” Revue Celtique 28 (1907): 111–12. Concludes that the discrepancies between the date, 1149, and the events described are the result of confusion between recent events and the date of the transcription.
  • Ward, 2 (1893): 416–35, 746–47. Includes descriptions of Latin mss: Harley 3776, Cotton Tiberius E. i., Add. 27,424; French ins: Add. 9771; English mss: Cotton Caligula A. ii., Royal 17 B. xliii.; Latin mss: Harley 4987, and Add. 11,437.


A Revelation of Purgatory by an Unknown Woman,
English 1422

  • Harley, Marta Powell, ed. “A Revelation of Purgatory: A Critical Edition Based on Longleat MS 29.” Ph.D. Diss.: Columbia University, 1981.
  • Harley, Marta Powell, ed. A Revelation of Purgatory by an Uknown Fifteenth Century Woman. Lewiston, N.Y.: Mellen Press, 1985. Introduction on the doctrine of purgatory; the Christian afterlife in popular visions; and the “revelation” and the woman visionary. Provides a critical text based on three mss (Longleat 29, Lincoln Cathedral 91 (Thornton), and Oxford, Bodleian Eng. th.c.58); and translation into modern English.
  • Horstmann, C., ed. Yorkshire Writers. London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1895, 83–92. Lightly annotated diplomatic edition of Middle English text from the Thornton ms.
  • McAvoy, Liz Herbert, ed. and trans. A Revelation of Purgatory. The Library of Medieval Women. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2017. Edition and translation based on Lincoln Cathedral MS 91.
  • Erler, Mary C. “‘A Revelation of Purgatory’ (1422): Reform and the Politics of Female Visions.” Viator 38 (2007): 321–47.
  • Erler, Mary C. “A Revelation of Purgatory.” In The History of British Women's Writing, 700–1500. Ed Diane Watt and Liz Herbert McAvoy. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2011, 1: 241–49. Discusses this text in the context of women spirituals and ecclesiastical reform in the early fifteenth-century.
  • Foster, 2:456–57, 648–49. Description and bibliography on the Middle English Revelation of Purgatory.
  • Harley, Marta Powell. “The Origin of a Revelation of Purgatory.” Reading Medieval Studies 12 (1986):87–91. Identifies various individuals who appear in this work, helping to establish the date and milieu of the author and visionary.


The Vision of Walkelin, French, 1091



    The Way of Hell and Paradise, by Jean de la Mote, 14th. C.


  • Pety, Sister M. Aquiline. La voie d’enfer et de paradis; an unpublished poem of the fourteenth century by Jehan de le Mote.” Ph.D. Diss.: The Catholic University of America, 1940. Edition of French text.

The Vision of Wetti (Visio Wettini), German, 824


  • Ciccarese, 406–445. Heito’s Latin text based on MGH (below) with facing Italian translation. Includes brief introduction (pp. 402–5) on the nature of this work with regard to the others in the collections. Provides some notes to the text.
  • Gardiner, 65–79. English translation of vision with notes and bibliography.
  • Knittel, Hermann, Walter Berschin,Walahfrid Strabo, and Heito, Visio Wettini: Einführung, lateinisch-deutsche Ausgabe, Reichenauer Texte und Bilder 12 (Heidelberg: Mattes, 2009).
  • MGH PLAC 2:267–75. Heito’s text ed. by E. Dümmler.
  • MGH Poetae M.E. 2:259–334. Introduction on Walafrid Strabo and his poetry; including discussion of mss, followed by a critical edition of Heito’s Latin prose version (268–75); and critical edition of Strabo’s Latin verse version (301–34). Ed. by Ernst Dümmler.
  • PL 105:771–80. Edition of Latin text of Heito’s version based on Mabillion, Act. ord S. Bened., saec. iv, parte 1.
  • PL 114:1065–82. Edition of Latin text of Strabo’s version.
  • St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. Sang. 869. Digitized manuscript of Stabo’s version.
  • Traill, David A.Walahfrid Strabo’s Visio Wettini: Text, Translation and Commentary. Bern. and Frankfurt/M: Lang, 1974. English translation and Latin edition of Strabo’s text with commentary and bibliography. Revision of dissertation (Univ. California, Berkeley, 1971), which originally included a critical apparatus and Heito’s prose version. This book includes indices and a “Note on the Latin Text.” Introduction includes studies of the ilfe of Walafrid, circumstances leading to his composition of the VW the place of the VW in the history of vision literature, mss (7), editions, and meter.


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The Apocalypse of Zephaniah (Anonymous Apocalypse),
Coptic, 100 BCE – c. 70 CE


  • Charlesworth, J.H. The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research with a Supplement. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1981, 220–23, 307.



  • Harnack, A. von. Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur bis Eusebius. Leipzig: J.C. Hinricks, 1958, 2.1, 572–73.
  • James, ANT, 530, nn. 1, 3; 534, n. 1; 540, n.1.
  • James, M.R. Lost Apocrypha of the Old Testament. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; New York, Macmillan, 1920, 73–74.
  • Schürer, E. “Die Apokalypse des Elias,” Theologische Literaturzeitung 24(1899): 4–8.

AB Analecta Bollandiana. Brussels: Société des Bollandistes, 1882– .
AS Acta Sanctorum, editio novissima. J, Carnadet et. al., ed. Paris: Palmé, 1863– .
BHL Bibliotheca hagiographica latinae antiquae et mediae aetatis. Brussels: Socii Bollandiani, 1898– .
Ciccarese Ciccarese, Maria Pia. Visioni dell’Aldilà in Occidente. Florence: Nardini Editore, 1987.
Gardiner Gardiner, Eileen. Visions of Heaven and Hell before Dante. New York: Italica Press, 1989.
MGH Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores rerum Germanicarum und Scriptores… nova ser. Hannover: Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde, 1826– .
MGH PLAC Monumenta Germaniae historica. Poetae latini aevi Carolini. Hannover: Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde, 1880–1951.
MGH SRM Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum. Hannover: Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde, 1884–1920 .
PL Patrologiae cursus completus. Series Latina. J.-P. Migne, ed. Paris: Migne, 1844–65.
Vincent of Beauvais Vincent of Beauvais. Bibliotheca mundi seu Speculi maioris. Vol. 4, Speculum historiale. Douay: B. Belleri, 1624; rpt. ed. Graz: Akademische Druck–u. Verlagsanstalt, 1965.

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About Judeo-Christian Hell
Judeo-Christian Texts
Judeo Christian Images

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rev. 03/24/2024