Bibliography on St. Patrick’s Purgatory

The Vision of Knight Owein (Tractatus De Purgatorio Sancti Patricii), English, 1184
The Vision of George, Knight of Hungary, Or George Grissophan, Provençal, mid-14th C.
The Vision of Louis of France, Or of Auxerre (Visio Ludovici De Francia or d’Auxerre) French, 1358
The Vision of Raymond de Perehlos, 1397
The Vision of William Staunton, English, after 1409
The Vision of Laurent Rathold de Pászthó, 1411





  • Atkinson Jenkins, Thomas. ‘Espurgatoire Seint Patriz” of Marie de France: An Old–French Poem of the Twelfth Century. Philadelphia: Ferris, 1894; rpt. Chicago, Il.: University of Chicago Press, 1903; Geneva: Slatkine, 1974; also in Chicago University Decennial Publications, ser. 1, 7 (1903): 233–327. Critical edition of Anglo–Norman text. Introduction discusses the legend, Marie’s Latin original and her dialect, the order of Marie’s works, and the date, language and mss of the Espurgatoire. Review by G. Paris, Romania 24(1895): 290–95.
  • Bertolini, Lucia. “Per una della leggende ‘che illustrano la Divina Commedia.” Studi Danteschi 53 (1981): 69–128. An annotated critical edition of an Italian Purgatorio di San Patrizio based on three mss with an introduction on the mss and editorial method.
  • Brunet, Gustave, ed. Le Voyage du pays sainct Patrix, auquel lieu on voit les peines du purgatoire et aussi les joyes de Paradis. Geneva: J. Gay, 1867. (B.N. Paris Rs. D. 63257.) Edition of Latin text based on 102 examples.
  • Caerwyn Williams, J. E. “Welsh Versions of the Purgatorium S. Patricii.” Studia celtica 8–9 (1973–74):121–94. Introduction provides background on otherworld vision literature, on St. Patrick’s Purgatory, its mss, and editions; lists mss containing Welsh versions of the Tractatus; provides a comparison of the various Welsh texts and presents a critical edition based on ms Llanstephan 27 with variants from Peniarth 5 and Lianstephan 4 with facing Latin from London, B.L, Royal 13 B. viii.
  • Curley, Michael J., ed. Saint Patrick’s Purgatory. A Poem by Marie de France. Binghampton, N.Y.: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1993. An edition of the French text from the edition by Warnke (below) with a facing English translation and an introduction discussing the date, historical and literary background, and relationship between this work and Marie’s other works. Bibliography and notes.
  • Delehaye, Hippolytus, ed. “Le Pèlerinage de Laurent de Pászthó au Purgatoire de S. Patrice.” AB 27 (1908): 35–60. Presents an edition of the Latin text found in London, B.L. Royal l0.B.ix. Introduction discusses sixteen other visitors to the Purgatory who left accounts. Delehaye has published this text in an attempt to insure that a knowledge of these visions is not lacking when we consider the significance of St. Patrick.
  • Easting, R. B., ed. “An Edition of Owain Miles and other Middle English Texts Concerning St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” P.Phil. Diss.: Oxford University, 1976. Prints in parallel: B.L. Royal 17.B.xlii; B.L. Add. Ms 34,194; B.L. Cotton Caligula A.ii; Yale Ms 365 (Book of Brome).
  • Easting, R. B. “Peter of Cornwall’s Account of St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” AB 97 (1979): 397–416. Edition of the Latin text (c. 1200) from Lambeth Palace Library Ms. 51 with an introduction on this vision by an unnamed knight and its relationship to Owein’s vision. Includes description of ms.
  • Easting, R. B., ed. St. Patrick’s Purgatory. Early English Text Society 298. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. Critical edition of two versions of the Middle English “Owayne Miles,” the Middle English Vision of William Staunton, and the Latin Tractatus. Introduction on St. Patrick’s Purgatory, mss, language, previous editions, and the texts. Includes select bibliography and glossary.
  • Endepols, H.J.E. Die Hijstoirie van Sunte Patricus’ Vegevuer naar een Berlisjnsch Handschrift. Van alle tijden 8. Groningen, The Hague: Wolters, 1919. Annotated diplomatic edition of Dutch text with translation into modern Dutch.
  • Frati, Ludovico, ed. “Il Purgatorio di S. Patrizio secondo Stefano di Bourbon e Umberto da Romans.” Giornale Storico della Letteratura Italiana 8 (1886): 140–79. Discusses this version of St. P’s P concluding that it does not belong to the body of literature on which Dante relied.
  • Frati, Ludovico, ed. “Tradizioni Storiche del Purgatorio di San Patrizio.” Giornale Storico della Letteratura Italiana 17 (1891):46–79. Discusses the importance and popularity of this legend and lists Latin, French, Provençal, English, Spanish, Italian, and Swedish versions with editions.
  • Gardiner, Eileen. Visions of Heaven and Hell before Dante New York: Italica Press, 1989, 135–48. Includes English translation of the Tractatus with notes and bibliography.
  • Grion, Giusto. “Il pozzo di San Patrizio.” Il Propugnatore 3 (1870): 67–149. Edition of the Venetian text of the Owein legend with  introduction.
  • Hammerich, L.L., ed. Visiones Georgii: Visiones quas in Purgatorio Sancti Patricii vidit Georgius Miles deUngaria, A.D. MCCCLIII. Copenhagen: Host, 1931. Critical edition of Latin text of the Vision of George Grissophan or George of Hungary. Introduction on mss.
  • Hammerich, L.L., ed. “Le pelerinage de Louis d’Auxerre au Purgatoire de S. Patrice.” Romania 55.127 (1929) :118–24. Correction to the Latin text with the help of a Catalan version.
  • Holdsworth, C. J. “Eleven Visions Connected with the Cistercian Monastery of Stratford Langthorne.” Citaux: Commentarii Cistercienses 13 (1962): 185– 208. Presents Latin texts with brief introduction to Lambeth Palace 51, Peter of Cornwall’s Liber revelationum, which includes a version of St. Patrick’s Purgatory.
  • Horstmann, Horstmann, Carl. Early South English Legendary. Early English Text Society 87. London: E.E.T.S., 1887, 199–220. Edition of Middle English text based on Laud 108, Bodley 186 and 692, Egerton 1993. (Reprinted from Horstmann, Altenglische Legenden Paderbom, 1875.)
  • Jeanroy, A., and A. Vignaux. Voyage au Purgatoire de St. Patrice: Visions de Tindal et de St. Paul: texts languedociens du quinzième siècle. Bibliothèque méridonale, ser. 1, vol. 8. Toulouse: E. Privat, 1903; rpt. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1971. Raimon de Perehlos version. Includes an introduction to the ms (Toulouse B.M. 894) and previous editions of it, a discussion of the language, a glossary, and an index of names. It is based on H. of Sawtry’s (Saltry) story of Knight Owein but here Raimon de Perehlos tells it as if he himself made the visit to the purgatory. Provides detailed information on this fourteenth–century author.
  • Klein, Darius M. “The Vision of Louis of France.” English translation based on Latin text in Voigt.
  • Kölbing, Eugen. “Zwei mittelenglische Bearbeitungen der Sage von St. Patrik’s Purgatorium.” Englische Studien 1 (1877): 57–121.Annotated diplomatic edition of the Middle English Purgatorium Sancti Patricii (pp. 98–113) and Owein Miles (113–21). Detailed introduction discusses mss, editions; compares different versions in effort to elucidate history of these texts. Review with corrections to text by J. Zupitza in Zeitschrift für Deutsches Archivgescgichte 22 n.f.(10) (1878): 248–51. Kolbing issued a list of revised readings in Englische Studien 7 (1884): 181–82. See Easting, EETS, pp. xl–xli.
  • Krapp, George Philip. The Legend of Saint Patrick’s Purgatory: Its Later Literary History. Baltimore: John Murphy, 1900. Study of the later history of the legend of St. Patrick’s Purgatory with a critical edition of the Middle English Vision of William Staunton based on B.L. Royal 17.B. xliii (primary text) and B.L. Add. 34,193 (pp. 35–77 including introduction and summary). Discusses the diffusion of the legend, especially in Spain (the history of Luis Enius), France, and Great Britain, and provides an introduction to the text.
  • Mall, Ed. “Zur Geschichte der Legende vom Purgatorium des heil. Patricius.” Romanische Forschungen 6 (1891):139–97. In a discussion of the background of Marie de France’s version of this work, this article presents a comparison of editions of two Latin texts: John Colgan’s Triadis Thaumaturgae... acta (Louvain, 1647) and Bamberg MS E.VII.50, with variants from B.L. Arundel 292.
  • Marchand, Jean. L’autre monde au Moyen Age. Poèmes et récits de la vielle France 17. Paris: Boccard, 1940, viii–xiii, xxvi–xxx, 79–115. French translation of the Tractatus of H. of Sawtry (Saltry). Provides a brief introduction and bibliography.
  • Matthew Paris. Chronica majora. Ed. by H.R. Luard. 2 vols. London: Longman & Co. 1874; rpt. Nendeln: Kraus, 1964, 192–203, anno 1153; 212–14, anno 1156.
  • Meyer, Paul. “Légendes Hagiographiques en Francais.” Histoire littéraire de la France. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1906, 33: 371–72, 378–458. Lists the manuscripts and editions of the seven French verse versions of H. of Sawtry’s (Saltry) St. Patrick’s Purgatory. Six are in octosyllabic verse; two were composed in France, the rest in England. Includes the versions attributed to Marie de France (Paris B.N. Fr. 25407); the version by Beroul (Cheltenham, Phillipps 4156, Tours 948); the version by Gaufroi de Paris (Paris B.N. Fr. 1526); and four anonymous versions found in mss in the British Library (Cotton Domit. A. iv; Harley 273, Lansdowne 383), at Cambridge (Univ. Ee.6.1 1k); and in Paris (B.N. Fr. 2198). Discussion of mss of prose versions is scattered through pp. 378–458.
  • Mörner, Marianne, ed. Le Purgatoire de Saint Patrice par Bérol. Lund: P. Lindstedt, 1917
  • Mörner, Marianne, ed. Le Purgatoire de Saint Patrice du manuscrit de laBibl. Nat. fonds fr. 25545. Lund Universitets Arsskrift, ser. 1, vol. 16, no. 4. Lund: Gleerup, 1920.Diplomatic edition of French verse version with notes and glossary. Introduction discusses the relationship between the French poem and the Latin legend; the ms; versification and language and origin and date of the poem. Anonymous work from east of France, possibly Champagne, dating from the last years of the thirteenth century.
  • PL 180:973–1004. Unannotated Latin edition of Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii Hibernorurnapostoli. Based on Thomas of Messingham, Florilegium insulae sanctorum, seu vitae et acta sanctorum Hiberniae (Paris: 1624, in quarto). Includes “prologus Henricii Salteriensis in purgatorium patricii.”
  • Picard, Jean–Michel, and Yolande de Pontfarcy. Saint Patrick’s Purgatory: A Twelfth Century Tale of a Journey to the Otherworld. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1985. Brief introduction to the history of Lough Derg mentioning some of the more famous visitors and some of the better studies. Discusses the authorship and date; folk, historical, literary and clerical sources. Text is an English translation of the Latin Tractatus. Select bibliography, including section on Lough Derg itself.
  • Roger of Wendover, 2:256–71. Diplomatic edition of Latin text of Owein legend with historical annotations. (See also 2:284–86.)
  • Roger of Wendover, 1:510–22. English translation of the Knight Owein legend based on the Coxe edition (332). Preface discusses Roger, the nature of his work and his sources. (See also 1:530–31 note.)
  • Smith, Lucy Toulmin. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory, and the Knight Sir Owne.” Englische Studien 9 (1886): 1–12. Diplomatic edition of text of Middle English Owayne Miles with introduction.
  • Smith, Lucy Toulmin.  A Common–place Book of the Fifteenth Century. London and Norwich: Trübner, 1886, 80–106. Revised text of above, reprinted with introduction.
  • Verdeyen, R., and J. Endepols. Tondalus’ Visionen en St. Patricus’ Vagevuur. Ghent: Siffer/Koninklijke Vlaamsche Academie, 1914–17, 2:177–318. Study by Endepols of the Purgatory of St. Patrick with a list of mss in vol. 1. Annotated critical edition of Middle Dutch text in vol. 2.
  • Villari, Antiche Leggende 51–76, Annali 103–28. Italian edition based on Florence, B.N. Palatini 93 compared with B.N. Cod. Magl., Conv. Sopp. 676, G.3.
  • Vincent of Beauvais. Bibliotheca mundi seu Speculi maioris. Vol. 4, Speculum historiale. Douay: B. Belleri, 1624; rpt. ed. Graz: Akademische Druck–u. Verlagsanstalt, 1965, 789.
  • Vising, Johan. Le purgatoire de saint Patrice: des manuscrits Harleien 273 et Fonds Francais 2198. Goteborg Hogskolas Arsskrift vol. 21, no. 3, 1916; rpt. Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1974.Introduction on texts and mss, versification, the language of the author of the Harley ms, and the date of the poem. Critical edition of the French verse version. Includes extensive commentary and glossary.
  • Voigt, Max. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Visionen-literatur im Mittelalter. Leipzig: Mayer & Müller, 1924; rpt. New York: Johnson Reprint, 1967. Introduction on the history of pilgrimages, continental pilgrims to St. Patrick’s Purgatory in Ireland, including George of Hungary or George Grissophan with a list of Latin mss; a summary of George’s vision, a discussion of the work and author, the German adaptation (including a list of mss), and the literary successor (Ludovicus de Francia), with a critical edition of the Latin text. (226–45). Originally appeared in Palestra 16.
  • Warnke, Karl, ed. Das Buch vom Espurgatoire S. Patrice der Marie de France und seine Quelle. Bibliotheca normannica 9. Halle/Saale: M. Niemeyer, 1938. Critical edition with manuscript variants of Latin text (two versions in parallel columns) of the Tractatus of H. of Sawtry (Saltrey) with the French translation on the opposite page. The introduction discusses the legend, the mss, the narrative, the growth and development of the text, its style and grammar, as well as other versions of the legend.
  • Waterhouse, Gilbert, ed. “Another Early German Account of St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” Hermathena 23 (1933): 114–16. Provides a very brief introduction and translation into English of a fifteenth–century version found in Trinity College Library, Dublin (Press A, 7.19) and a pamphlet from the Lough Fea collection in the same library. This work is based on chapter one of H. of Sawtry (Saltry), concerning the entry into the Purgatory, and ending with the story of a man who didn’t believe in the Purgatory and was found dead (and black as coal) with a note in his hand saying that he had seen purgatory and hell and they were awful.
  • Weitemeier, Bernd. Visiones Georgii: Untersuchung mit synoptischer Edition der Übersetzung und Redaktion C. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 2006. This study describes the textual tradition of 20 Latin and 26 German manuscripts, as well as a Czech manuscript. Presents a new edition of an early New High German translation of the “Visiones Georgii.”
  • Yonge, Jacobus. Le Pèlerinage de Laurent de Pászthó au Purgatorie de S. Patriec. Brussels: Société des Bollandists,1908. An account of the pilgrimage written by Jacobus Yonge from notes and manuscripts.
  • Zanden, Cornelis M. Van der, ed. Étude sur le purgatoire de Saint Patrice, accompagnée du texte latin d’Utrecht et du texte anglo–normand de Cambridge. Amsterdam: H. J. Paris, 1927. Includes Latin text based on one ms from Utrecht with a description of mss and consideration of other mss; Anglo–Norman text based on two mss, notes on the language and versification, description of mss and consideration of other French versions. Appendix includes text of Arundel 292 in Latin. Glossary.
  • Ancona, 59–63. Treats the antecedents of Dante in general and gives some particular attention to the Paul, Brendan, Tundale, Patrick, and Alberic visions. He does not make firm connections between these and the Divine Comedy, but indicates a general milieu of vision literature, which does not detract from Dante’s originality.
  • Barbezat, Michael David. “‘He Doubted That These Things Actually Happened’: Knowing the Otherworld in the Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii.” History of Religions 57.4 (2018): 321–47.
  • Baring–Gould, Sabine. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. Intro, by Leslie Shepard. New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1967, 230–49; abridged ed., ed. with intro, by Edward Hardy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1978, 85–87. Very cursory discussion of visits by Fortunatus, Knight Owein, and William Staunton, of references to the Purgatory in chronicles, etc., of the history of the site, and of ancient and Celtic influences on the development of the Purgatory legend. Includes brief bibliography.
  • Bieler, Ludwig. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory: Contributions towards an Historical Topography.” The Irish Ecclesiastical Record 93 (1960): 137–44. Examines sometimes contradictory accounts of the purgatory to determine the location and concludes that it was on Station Island in Lough Derg, not Saint’s Island; that the actual site on the island was the same in all accounts except perhaps for the descent into the pit by the canon of Eymsteade (1494). Discusses how the site was turned from a place of individual penitence to organized pilgrimage.
  • Boas, 54–74. Study of “primitivism” which examines the idea of the earthly paradise using several examples but in particular the Vision of Tundale, St. Patrick’s Purgatory, and St. Brendan’s Voyage.
  • Carozzi, Claude. Le Voyage de l’âme dans l’au-delà d’après la littérature latine, Ve-XIIIe siècle Le Voyage de l’âme dans l’au-delà d’après la littérature latine, Ve-XIIIe siècle (Rome: École Française de Rome, 1994), 500–506, 530–33, 604–06.
  • Curtayne, Alice. Lough Derg: St. Patrick’s Purgatory. London and Dublin: Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1945. A history of Lough Derg for the modern pilgrim, which includes a chapter (pp. 27–40) on the Owein legend.
  • Degli Innocenti, Mario. “Radazioni italiane del Purgatorio di S. Patrizio.” Italia, medioevale e umanistica 27 (1984): 81–120. A study of the relationships of the various Italian versions of St. P.’s P. (Tuscan, Lombard, Venetian) to each other, to the Latin text, and to other vernacular versions.
  • Dixon, V. F. “Saint Patrick of Ireland and the Dramatists of Golden Age Spain.” Hermathena 121 (1976):142–58. Focuses on Juan Pérez de Mantalbán’s Vida y purgatorio de San Patricio and the two plays: El mayor prodigio attributed to Lope de Vada and El purgatorio de San Patricio by Calderon, and discusses the development of the legend in these works.
  • Easting, Robert. “The Date and Dedication of the Tractarus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii.” Speculum 53 (1978): 778–83. Refutes Locke’s arguments (512), and claims that the dedicatee was Hugh of Wardon and not Henry of Wardon, and proposes that the work was written most likely c. 1179–81.
  • Easting, Robert. “Owein at St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” Medium Aevum 55, 2 (1986): 159–75. Discusses the character of Owein and his possible origins in mythology – but prefers to assume that he was a historical character; the date of the visit, which he places in 1146/7, based on the dates connected with the monastery he helped build at Baltinglass; Owein’s trip to the Holy Land (as a pilgrim, not a crusader); and the ultimate fate of Owein – probably as a monk at Baltinglass.
  • Easting, Robert. “Purgatory and the Earthly Paradise in the Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii.” Cîteaux: commentarii Cistercienses 37 (1986): 23–48.
  • Easting, Robert. “The Middle English ‘Hearne Fragment’ of St. Patrick’s Purgatory.Notes and Queries 35 (1988): 436–37. Connects this fragment with B.L. Harley 4012 and thus revises Forster’s assessment of the number of  Middle English versions (four rather than six).
  • Easting, Robert. “Some Antedatings and Early Usages from the Auchinleck Owayne Miles.” In Sentences for Alan Ward. Ed. by D. M. Reeks. Southampton: Bosphorus Books, 1988, 167–74. Concludes from ms evidence that the Auchinlech Owayne Miles is the most romantic and individual of the many medieval vernacular translations of the Owayne story.
  • Easting, Robert. “Middle English Translations of the Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii.” In The Medieval Translator II. Ed. by Roger Ellis. London: University of London, 1991, 151–74. Discusses the Middle English translations from Latin and the tendencies to translate an attitude and manner: movement from narrative, meditative, eschatologically theoretical to the romance and drama of personal heroism, which is possible because Owayne is a knight and the St. Patrick’s Purgatory an actual place.
  • Easting, Robert. “The South English Legendary ‘St. Patrick’ as Translation.” Leeds Studies in English 21(1990):119–40.
  • Easting Robert. “Send Thine Heart int Purgatory: Visionaries of the Otherworld.” In The Long Fifteenth Century. Ed by Helen Cooper and Sally Mapstone. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
  • Eckleben, Selmar. Die alteste Schilderung vom Fegefeuer das heiligen Patricius: Eine litterarische Untersuchung. Halle: M. Niemeyer, 1885. Study of the merit of the legend, its place in the legend literature, and the origin of the Latin version. Krapp notes that “the author’s final conclusion is that the legend in its origin was a mere monkish fabrication for mercenary purpose.”
  • Esposito, E. “Notes on Latin Learning and Literature in Medieval Ireland.” Hermathena 50 (1937):162–67. Enumerates seventy Latin mss of the Purgatory, plus the mss of four other narratives associated with this location: George Grissophan, Taddeus de Gualandis of Pisa, and Raimon de Perehlos.
  • Felice, Philippe de. L’Autre Monde: Mythes et Légendes: Le Purgatoire de saint Patrice. Paris: Champion, 1906. Called “a well–documented study on the history of pilgrimage and on the texts” (Marchand).
  • Foster, 2:453–55, 646–48. Description and bibliography of the Middle English St. Patrick’s Purgatory. (See Easting above.)
  • Foulet, Lucien. “Marie de France et la Légende du Purgatoire de Saint Patrice.” Romanische Forschungen 22 (1908): 599–627.A brief study of this work in comparison with the Latin original.
  • Gaidoz, H. “Pilgrimage of the Hungarian Nobleman to St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” Revue Celtique 2 (1872): 482–84. Brief note on George, the Hungarian Knight’s vision with a discussion of the text and mss.
  • Galler, Matthias, Fritz Kemmler, Jessica Barr, and Courtnay Konshuh. “Medieval Visions of the Otherworld.” Connotations 16.1.3: 129–43; 17:129–43; 20:1,11, 12–22, 23–33.
  • Garcia Solalinde, Antonio. La primera version española de “El purgatorio de San Patricio” y la difusión de esta leyanda en España. Madrid: Hernando, 1924. Discusses the birth of the legend, its spread through Europe, and the first Spanish text, presenting a dipliomatic edition of it, an analysis of the Latin original, a comparison of the Spanish text with the Tractatus, and a study of the author, date and language of the Spanith text.
  • Hammerich, L. L. “Studies of Visiones Georgii.” Classica et medievalia. Revue danoise de philology et d’histoire 1 (1938): 95–118, 2(1939): 190–220.
  • Haren, Michael, and Yolande de Pontfarcy, eds. The Medieval Pilgrimage to St Patrick’s Purgatory, Lough Derg and the European Tradition. Enniskillen: Clogher Historical Society, 1988. On the history of the Lough Derg site and the pilgrims who visited.
  • Kenney, 354–56. Brief description with bibliography to 1929.
  • Le Goff, Jacques. “Les Gestes du purgatoire.” In L’Art des confins. Melanges offerts à Maurice de Gandillac. Ed. by Annie Cazenave and Jean–Francois Lyotard. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1985,457–64. Examines the system of gestures in relation to the space of purgatory as revealed in St. Patrick’s Purgatory, discussing the idea of the gesturing and the gestured at (or those who act as opposed to those acted upon), and relating it to the new idea of the purgation in the Christian afterlife.
  • Leslie, Shane. The Story of St. Patrick’s Purgatory. St. Louis and London: Herder, 1917.
  • Leslie, Shane, ed.  Saint Patrick’s Purgatory: A Record from History and Literature. London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1932; rpt. Dublin: Colm O Lochlainn, at the Sign of the Three Candles, 1961. A collection of extracts and documents with their sources to illustrate the history of St. Patrick’s Purgatory from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century. Makes many unusual documents available but does not present a complete version of any of the major literary texts.
  • Leslie, Shane. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” In The Script of Jonathan Swift and Other Essays. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1935, 57–70. Attempts to trace the passing of folklore into medieval legend and the crystalization of both in the religious tradition of the Irish Celts with a very general essay on the legend of Lough Derg and its passing into written text.
  • Locke, F.W. “A New Date for the Composition of the Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii. “ Speculum 40(1965): 641–46. Argues for dating the Tractatus between 1208 and 8 April 1215 based on various pieces of evidence but hingeing on the period of Henry’s rule over St. Mary de Sartris or Warden, to whom, he claims, this work is dedicated. (See Easting above.)
  • Lyle, E.B. “The Visions of St. Patrick’s Purgatory, Thomas of Erceldoune, Thomas the Rhymer, and the Demon Lovers.” Neuphilologische Mittelungen 72 (1972):716–22.
  • McAlindon, T. “Comedy and Terror in Middle English Literature: The Diabolical Game.” Modern Language Review 60/3 (1965): 323–32. In the context of Middle English literature in general, and particularly drama, author discusses the playful devils found in St. P’s P. (esp. pp. 326–28).
  • MacBride, P. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory in Spanish Literature.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly 25 (1936): 277–91. An overview of the Patrick story in Spanish literature including the discovery of the ms. from which Philip O’Sullevan Beare took his account of the voyage of Perehlos to Lough Derg in 1397.
  • Mac Tréinfhir, Noel. “The Todi Fresco and St. Patrick’s Purgatory, Lough Derg.” Clogher Record 12 (1986): 141–58.
  • Mahaffy, John Pentland. “Two Early Tours of Ireland.” Hermathena no. 40, vol. 18 (1919): 1–16. This work is more concerned with what occurs previous to the entry into the Purgatory. Includes a translation of a portion of the Perehlos work (see 461) and the complete text of a letter of Francesco Chiericati, papal nuncio at the court of Henry VIII, to Isabella D’Este referring to the Purgatory, but not describing the actual experience in the Purgatory. The introduction hints at a prototype for the Purgatory in Greek mystery initiations, such as the Eleusinian mysteries and the cave of Trophonius, but Mahaffy does not pursue this idea.
  • Miquel y Planas, Ramón. Influencia dei “Purgatorio de sant Patrici” en la llegenda de Don Juan. Barcelona: Casa provencial de caritat, 1914. A brief work on the influence of the Perehlos version on the Don Juan legend in Spain. Includes extensive notes.
  • O’Connor, Daniel. St. Patrick’s Purgatory, Lough Derg. Rev, ed. Dublin: Duffy, and New York: Benziger Bros., 1895, 1903, 1910. (Published as Lough Derg and Its Pilgrims. Dublin: Joseph Dollard, 1879.) A popular history of Lough Derg, its history, legends, antiquities, topography, surroundings, and pilgrims.
  • Pinkerton, W. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” Ulster Journal of Archaeology 4(1856):40–52, 101–17, 222–38. Discusses the legendary backgrounds to St. Patrick’s Purgatory and the legends of Owein, Raymond of Perehlos, and William Staunton.
  • Pontfarcy, Y. de. “Le Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii de H. de Saltrey: sa date et ses sources.” Peritia: Journal of the Medieval Academy of Ireland 3 (1984): 460–80. Examination of the date and sources, concluding that “the story of Owein was transmitted to the monk H. de Saltrey, who, on the request of his abbot H. de Sartis, wrote the first version of the story in 1184, which he expanded a little later (1186–88), assuring by the popularity of his work, the European fame of the Purgatory.” Among other sources mentions Adamnán, Laisren, Gregory the Great, and Paul.
  • Ringger, Kurt. “Die Altfranzösischen Verspurgatorien.” Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie 88 (1972):389–402. Examines the question of authorship. Was the author, indeed, Marie de France, an identification accepted by so many scholars?
  • Rockelein. Combines psychological and ethnological approaches in a study of Otloh of Emmeran with particular reference to the “collective” visions of Gottschalk, Thurkill, Tundale, and Owein (St. Patrick’s Purgatory).
  • Ryan, John. “Saint Patrick’s Purgatory.” Studies 21 (1932):443–60.Discusses this work in the context of pilgrimage, as well as evidence regarding its location and the nature of the visions there.
  • Ryan, John. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory, Lough Derg.” In Clogher Record Album. Ed. by Joseph A. Duffy. Monaghan: R & S Printers, 1975, 12–26.
  • Seymour, St. John Drelincourt. St. Patrick’s Purgatory: A Medieval Pilgrimage in Ireland. Dundalk: W. Tempest, 1918. Gives a brief account of the history of Lough Derg, relates at some length the visions seen by certain pilgrims, deals with the literature that arose and the effect this had on the literary life of Europe, and finally discusses the history of the cave and the monastery from the suppression at the end of the fifteenth century to the present. A well–annotated study for the general reader. Covers David of Würzburg, Joscelin, Giraldus Cambrensis, H. of Sawtry (Saltry), George Grissophan, Raymond de Perehlos, William of Staunton, Antonio Mannini and Laurence Rathold de Pasztho.
  • Shields, H.E. “An Old French Book of Legends and Its Apocalyptic Background.” Ph.D. Diss.: Trinity College, Dublin, 1967, pp. 336–62, and appendix 1.
  • Stanford, M.A. “The Sumner’s Tale and St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 19 (1920): 377–81. On Chaucer’s description of purgatory and its probable reliance on the St. Patrick’s Purgatory in the South English Legendary.
  • Taylor, Lawrence J., and Maeve Hickey, “Pilgrimage to the Edge: Lough Derg and the Moral Geography of Europe and Ireland.” In The Tourism Imaginary and Pilgrimages to the Edges of the World, ed. by Nieves Herrero and Sharon R. Roseman. Tourism and Cultural Change 44.
  • Vinton, Frederick. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory and the Inferno of Dante.” Bibla Sacra 30 (1873): 275–400.
  • Ward, 2 (1893): 435–92, 748. Includes descriptions of Latin mss: Royal 13 B. viii, Arundel 292, Cotton Nero A. vii, Royal 8 C. xiv, Harley 261, Harley 3776, Harley 103, Royal 9 A. xiv, Cotton Vesp. A. vi., Cotton Tiberius E. i., Harley 3846, Egerton 1117, Add. 33,957, Harley 912; French mss: Cotton Domit. A. iv., Harley 273, Lansdowne 383, Add. 6524; English mss: Egerton 1993, Cotton Julius D. ix., Add. 10,301, Cotton Caligula A. ii., Royal 17 B. xliii, Add. 34,193; and Latin mss: Royal 10 B. ix, and Harley 2851.
  • Warnke, Karl, ed. “Die Vorlage des Espurgatoirie St. Patriz der Marie de France.” Philologische Studien Karl Voretzsch zum 60 Geburstage. Halle/Saale: Max Niemeyer, 1927.
  • Waterhouse, G. “An Early German Account of St. Patrick’s Purgatory.” Modern Language Review 18 (1923):317–22. Edition of 90–line fragment of fifteenth–century German text, from Trinity College Dublin, with remarks concluding that the German is an indirect not a direct translation from the Latin.
  • Waterhouse, G. “St. Patrick’s Purgatoy: A German Account.”Hermathena 20(1930): 30–51. On dating the Tractatus.
  • Watkins, Carl. “Doctrine, Politics and Purgation: The Vision of Tnúthgal and the Vision of Owein at St Patrick’s Purgatory.” Journal of Medieval History 22.3 (1996): 225–36.
  • Weitemeier, Bernd. Visiones Georgii: Untersuchung mit synoptischer Edition der Übersetzung und Redaktion C. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 2006. Discusses the textual tradition, including twenty Latin, twenty-six German, and one Czech manuscript. Presents an edition of an early New High German translation of the text. Includes introduction and commentary.
  • Wright, Thomas. St. Patrick’s Purgatory: An Essay on the Legends of Purgatory, Hell and Paradise Current during the Middle Ages. London: John Russell Smith, 1844. Antipapist study of visions as superstition with St. Ps’P as a focal point. Wright discusses the history of medieval visions of purgatory, heaven, and hell (often mentioning mss) – Furseus, Paul, Drytheim, Charles the Fat, the Boy William, Tundale, the Monk of Eynsham, Thurkill, etc., generally recounting the important features of the vision, dealing with them chronologically, right down to the modern period. Sees all this literature as a plot by the Catholic priesthood to keep the Catholic peasantry under control. Equates belief with superstition. Makes some attempt to trace ideas on heaven and hell or “how these strange foreign takes affected sensible Anglo-Saxon minds.”
  • Zaleski, Carol. “St. Patrick’s Purgatory: Pilgrimage Motifs in a Medieval Otherworld Vision.” Journal of the History of Ideas 46 (1985) 467–85. Reviews the background of Lough Derg; and analyzes the legend of the Knight Owein in relation to issues of pilgrimage, penance and eschatology.
  • Zanden, Cornelius M. Van der. “Auteur d’un manuscript latin du Purgatoire de Saint Patrice de la Bibliothèque de 1’Université d’Utrecht.” Neophilologus 10 (1925): 243–49. Proposes that this ms (Utrecht 173) presents a possible primitive version of the text.
  • Zanden, Cornelius M. Van der. “Un chapitre intéressant de la ‘Topographia Hibernica’ et le ‘Tractatus de Purgatorio sancti Patricii.’” Neophilologus 12 (1927): 132–37. Discusses the interpolation of the Purgatorio into Giraldus Cambrensis’ Topographia in the Utrecht ms (Univ. Bibl. 173) and the reasons for it.
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rev. 07/09/2023